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Full text of "Lathe work for beginners; a practical treatise on lathe work with complete instructions for properly using the various tools, including complete directions for wood and metal turning, screw cutting, measuring tools, wood turning, metal spinning, etc., and instructions for building home-made lathes with their attachments, etc."

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LATHE WORK 

For Beginners 



A PRACTICAL TREATISE 

On Lathe Work with complete instructions for properly using 
the various tools, including complete directions for 
wood and metal Turning, Screw Cutting, Measur- 
ing Tools, Wood Turning, Metal Spinning, 
etc., and instructions for Building 
Home-made Lathes with 
their attachments, etc. 



BY 

RAYMOND FRANCIS YATES 

author op 

"Model Making," " Shop Practice for Home Mechanics," 

"Soldering and Brazing," etc. 




Fully Illustrated with 167 Line drawings and photographs 



NEW YORK 


THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY 


2 WEST 45th STREET 


1922 



i i -I 



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Copyrighted 1922, by 
THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY 



Printed in the U. S. A. 



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PEEFACE 

The lathe is the master tool. It has taken a 
great part in the progress of civilization and 
of all the machines of production, it is the most 
important. 

In the tremendous mass of technical literature 
published in the United States, there is not one 
volume devoted wholeheartedly to the lathe from 
the standpoint of the beginner — the man who de- 
sires to learn its uses as an amateur. There are 
many volumes dealing with large lathes from the 
industrial viewpoint, but these are more or less 
useless to the man who knows little or nothing 
about lathe operation. 

In this volume the writer has endeavored to set 
forth the basic principles of l&the operation and 
manipulation, in a way that will interest and in- 
struct the layman. The book starts at the very 
bottom and ends at a point beyond which the 
average amateur does not care to go. 

The author desires to acknowledge his thanks 
to the following men who assisted in the prepara- 
tion of the volume. The model naval gun de- 

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4 Preface 

scribed in Chapter XIII is the work of Mr. F. H. 
Lubby. The model engineer's lathe described in 
Chapter XI is the design of Mr. Henry Greenly, 
an English authority on model engineering. Mr. 
Joseph Dante, Jr., designed the jig-saw lathe at- 
tachment which forms part of Chapter IV. The 
author also wishes to thank his wife, who not only 
made stenographic notes of the contents of the 
entire book, but also typed the manuscript. 

February, 1922. 

The Authob. 



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CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

Choosing a Lathe 

page 
Price of Lathes — Catalogues — Wood-Turning Lathes — 
Metal Turning Lathes — Features of Construction — 
Cone Bearings — Speeds — Bearings — Bench Lathes 
— Tail Stock — Seneca Falls Lathe — Urban Lathes — 
Greenley Lathe — Millers Falls Lathe — Goodell-Pratt 
Lathe — Barnes Lathes — Precision Lathes, Rivett, 
Stark, Ames, etc 17 

CHAPTER II 
Setting up and Driving the Lathe 
Unpacking the Lathe — Cleaning the Lathe — Setting up the 
Lathe — Foundation — Position — 'Leveling — Counter- 
shaft — Line Shaft — Power Necessary — Mounting 
Power Motor 34 

CHAPTER III 
The Lathe and Its Parts 
Analysis of the Lathe — Back Gears — Screw Cutting Parts 
— Apron — Carriage — Manipulation of Carriage — Care 
of Lathe, etc 45 

CHAPTER IV 

Lathe Attachments and Their Use 

Center Rests — Milling Attachments — Gear Cutting Attach- 
ments — Thread-Cutting Attachments — Grinding — 

Circular Saws — Turret. 54 

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6 Contents 

CHAPTER V 

Measuring Tools and Their Use 

page 
Scale — Square — Outside Calipers — Inside Calipers 1 — Depth 

Gauge — Micrometer Depth Gauge — Micrometer — Ver- 
nier — Use of Micrometers — Drill Gauge — Spring Di- 
viders — Thread Gauges — Snap Gauges — Use of Meas- 
uring Tools 86 

CHAPTER VI 

A Lesson in Metal Turning 

Cutting Action of Lathe — Lathe Tools — Use of Various 
Tools — Grinding Tools — Simple Turning — Finding 
Centers — Mounting Work — Lathe Dog — Positive and 
Negative Rake on Lathe Tools — Hand Turning — 
Hand Turning Tools — Using Lathe as Drill Press — 
Notes on Drills — Disc Grinder 103 

CHAPTER VII 

Advanced Lathe Work 

Use of Chuck — Mandrels — Boring — Boring Tools — Boring 
Bars — Boring Cylinders — Strapping Work to Lathe 
Carriage — Face Plate — Eccentric Turning — Eccentric 
Mandrel — Angle Plate — Taper Turning — Use of 
Reamers 128 

CHAPTER VIII 

Screw Cutting • 

Use of Hand Chasers — Inside and Outside Chasers — Use 
of Screw Cutting Lathe — Change Gears — Thread Cut- 
ting Tools — Inside Tool — Outside Tool — Use of Lu- 
bricants 146 



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Contents 7 

CHAPTER IX 

Wood Turning 

page 
Wood Turning Lathe — Speeds — Mounting Work — Tools — 
Use of Various Tools — Sharpening Tools — Finishing 
Surfaces— Choice of Woods • • • • 157 

CHAPTER X 

Metal Spinning 

Lathe for Metal Spinning — Tee-Rests — Tools — Use of 
Various Tools — Metals — Annealing — Use of Forms — 
Centers — Sample Turning — Mounting Work — Speeds 176 

CHAPTER XI 

Building an Amateur's Metal Turning Lathe 

General Description of Lathe — Lathe Bed — Patterns — 
Castings — Machining — Assembling — Work Bench — 
Countershaft — Accessories — Jig Saw Attachment — 
Slide Rest — Grinding Table — Hand Filing Jig— Cir- 
cular Saw Table 192 

CHAPTER XII 

Building a Simple Wood Turning Lathe 

Maple Bed — Patterns — Castings — Machining — Assembly 
—Attachments 208 

CHAPTER XIII 

How to Build a Model Rapid-Fire Naval Gun 

Gun Design — Machining of Parts — Use of D-Bit — Pol- 
ishing — Finishing — Assembly, etc 217 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIG. PAGE 

1. A simple type of wood-turning and light metal-turning 

lathe : 18 

2. A power-driven wood-turning lathe 20 

3. A good type of screw-cutting lathe with foot-power 

drive. This lathe can also be driven by an electric 

motor 24 

4. A small bench lathe of substantial design suitable for 

model making and small turning 25 

5. A bench type precision lathe 26 

6. A bench type precision lathe with compound slide-rest. 27 

7. A foot-power screw -cutting lathe with a compound 

slide rest 28 

8. The lathe shown in Fig. 7 mounted for benchwork .... 29 

9. An English type Drummond lathe with a round bed. . 30 

10. A screw-cutting lathe with a motor mounted in the head 31 

11. A good amateur bench lathe with parallel steel rods for 

the bed 32 

12. A countershaft for use with a small lathe 36 

13. How the lathe is set up in the shop 37 

14. How the shaft hangers are held to the ceiling of the shop 39 

15. A small countershaft for a bench lathe 40 

16. A small power motor suitable for driving a bench lathe . . 41 

17. A special countershaft for use with a precision lathe 42 

18. How a small precision lathe is set up with a second 

countershaft to drive the grinding attachment 43 

19. A substantial screw-cutting lathe. The names of the 

various parts are described in the text 46 

20. How the cone pulley on the countershaft and lathe 

spindle are arranged to obtain various speeds 47 

21. How the back gears of a lathe are arranged 48 

22. A compound slide-rest 51 

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10 List of Illustrations 

FIG. PAGE 

23. A micrometer collar placed on the cross-feed handle. . . 52 

24. A three-jawed center-rest 55 

25. A two-jawed center-rest 56 

26. A lathe milling attachment 57 

27. A two-inch milling cutter 57 

28. Another type of milling attachment 59 

29. A milling attachment for a bench lathe. This attach- 

ment has an index plate 60 

30. A lathe gear-cutting attachment 61 

31. A lathe gear-cutting attachment used to flute reamers. . 63 

32. A gear-cutting attachment fixed to the head of a pre- 

cision lathe 64 

33. A screw-cutting attachment for the precision bench 

lathe 65 

34. Another type of screw-cutting attachment for a bench 

lathe 66 

35. A turret for a bench lathe with which six different 

operations can be performed. 66 

36. A circular saw attachment for a bench lathe. . 67 

37. A jig-saw attachment for a bench lathe 68 

38. A grinding spindle attached to the slide-rest of a pre- 

cision bench lathe 69 

39. An electric tool-post grinder for a large lathe 70 

40. A homemade jig-saw for a bench lathe 71 

41. The drawings for a small jig-saw 72 

42. The main casting for a file rest 77 

43. Front view of the casting 79 

44. Back view of the casting 79 

45. The dimensions of the roller pins 81 

46. The dimensions of the rollers 82 

47. How the index attachment is fixed to the lathe 83 

48. The index pulley for the filing attachment 84 

49. A machinist's four-inch scale 86 

50. A scale and square combined 87 

51. A combined scale and square with 45° angle 88 

52. Inside calipers 88 



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List of Illustrations 11 

FIG. PAGE 

53. The use of inside calipers 89 

54. The adjustment of inside calipers , 89 

55. Calipers for outside measurements. 90 

56. Adjustment of outside calipers 91 

57. The use of outside calipers 91 

58. A depth gauge 92 

59. The use of the depth gauge. 93 

60. A micrometer depth gauge 93 

61. A micrometer for very accurate measurements 94 

62. A micrometer scale 95 

63. A micrometer reading of J inch (.250) 96 

64. A micrometer vernier for measuring with an accuracy 

of one ten-thousandth of an inch 97 

65. A micrometer with a test piece used for maintaining its 

adjustment. . 98 

66. Adrill gauge 98 

67. Spring dividers and scriber 99 

68. Adjusting spring dividers 100 

69. A small thread gauge 101 

70. The use of a thread gauge 101 

71. A snap gauge 102 

72. The direction of the work in relation to the lathe tool . . 103 

73. A complete set of lathe tools 104 

74. The use of lathe tools 106 

75. A piece of sample turning 107 

76. A self-centering punch 107 

77. Finding a center for spring dividers 108 

78. A centering drill 109 

79. Proper lathe centers 109 

80. Centers made with an ordinary drill 109 

81. A lathe-dog 110 

82. Methods of using a lathe-dog : 110 

83. Showing the meaning of a negative rake Ill 

84. Lathe tool in position for cutting 112 

85. The use of the parting tool 115 

86. The proper position for hand-turning 116 



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12 List of Illustrations 

FIG. PAGE 

87. Hand-turning tools 117 

88. Correct and incorrect position for the hooked tool 118 

89. Inside turning with hand tools 119 

90. A drill chuck for the tail-stock 119 

91. A V-center for the lathe 120 

92. A metal drill and the names of its parts 121 

93. A drill-grinding gauge 122 

94. How a drill is ground for brass 123 

95. Cutting threads on a small bench lathe . 124 

96. A disc grinder for use on a small lathe 124 

97. A small compression chuck and its use 125 

98. Dimensions of a bushing to be made by the use of a 

compression chuck . 126 

99. Using a small lathe as a grinding head 126 

100. A piece of small turning 128 

101. The work mounted on the chuck 129 

102. How a ring is turned out : 130 

103. How brass tubing is mounted in a chuck. 130 

104. A pulley to be turned on a mandrel 131 

105. The pulley mounted on a mandrel 132 

106. How the pulley is forced onto the mandrel 133 

107. A cup to be turned out on the lathe 133 

108. How the boring tool is mounted 134 

109. Improper clearance on the boring tool 134 

110. A boring bar for short cuts 135 

111. A large boring bar 135 

112. How work to be bored out is mounted on the lathe 

carriage 136 

113. How carriage bolts are used in mounting work 137 

114. The lathe face-plate 137 

115. A pulley mounted on the lathe face-plate 138 

116. How a cylinder to be bored is mounted on the face- 

plate 138 

117. Showing the use of wooden blocks in mounting work. . 139 

118. An eccentric mounted on a face-plate , . 140 

119. An eccentric mandrel 140 



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List of Illustrations 13 

PIG. PAGE 

120. Facing off a split bearing with an angle-plate 141 

121. An adjustable counter-weight 142 

122. An elbow mounted on an angle-plate 142 

123. Turning circular plates of thin sheet metal 143 

124. Showing the use of a large reamer 144 

125. A chaser used in cutting threads by hand 146 

126. Finding the pitch of a screw without a thread gauge . . . 147 

127. How a thread is cut by the use of hand chasers 147 

128. The proper position of a hand chaser in cutting threads 148 
120. The use of an internal chaser 150 

130. A gear train on a screw-cutting lathe 152 

131. A lathe index plate 153 

132. How a thread-tool is ground.* 154 

133. A thread-tool gauge 154 

134. Showing the use of thread gauge 155 

135. An internal thread-cutting tool 156 

136. A good wood-turning lathe 158 

137. A spur center for use on a wood-turning lathe 159 

138. A screw center used in wood-turning 160 

139. The manipulation of a wood-turning tool 161 

140. A set of wood-turning tools 163 

141. Face-plate for wood-turning -^ 168 

142. A tee-rest with fulcrum pins used in metal spinning. . . 177 

143. A revolving back-center for use in metal spinning. ... 178 

144. A set of metal-spinning tools 179 

145. A copper cup to be spun 181 

146. The copper disc mounted on the wooden block or form 

to make the copper cup shown in Fig. 145 181 

147. The form mounted on the face-plate 182 

148. Showing the position of the copper disc on the lathe, 

ready for spinning 182 

149. A more elaborate cup, and follow-up block 190 

150. A simple revolving center 191 

151. A good amateur bench lathe 193 

152. Showing the construction of the lathe pictured in 

Fig. 151 195 



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14 List of Illustrations 

FIG. PAGE 

153. How the babbitting for the lathe bearings is done 197 

154. The construction of the lathe slide-rest 198 

155. The constructional details of the amateur bench lathe. 200 

156. The constructional details of the amateur bench lathe 204 

157. The completed amateur's wood-turning lathe 208 

158. Lathe patterns 209 

159. Constructional details of wood-turning lathe 211 

160. The lathe bed assembled 212 

161. The model rapid-fire gun *. 218 

162. The barrel of the model gun 219 

163. The base and carriage for the model gun 219 

164. Constructional details of the model gun 221 

165. Constructional details of the model gun 223 

166. Constructional details of the model gun 225 

167. Constructional details of the model gun 228 



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LATHE WORK FOR BEGINNERS 

CHAPTER I 

CHOOSING A LATHE 

Price of Lathes — Catalogues — Wood Turning Lathes — Metal 
Turning Lathes — Features of Construction — Cone Bear- 
ings — Speeds — Bearings — Bench Lathes — Tail Stock 
— Seneca Falls Lathe — Urban Lathe — Greenley Lathe — 
Millers Falls Lathe — Goodell-Pratt Lathe — Barnes Lathes 
— Precision Lathes, Rivett, Stark, Ames, etc. 

Ther:? is a multitude of small, low priced lathes 
on the market. The more expensive machines are, 
of course, of the precision type and cannot in any 
way be compared with the inexpensive tools in- 
tended for amateur use. In this Chapter the 
reader is given information that will greatly assist 
him in making a good choice. Much depends upon 
the money available for expenditure, and the 
nature of the work to be done. 

In choosing a lathe, the student should first send 
for the various catalogues of all the reputable 
manufacturers of small lathes. Each catalogue 
should be gone over carefully and the individual 

17 



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18 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



features of the lathes noted. In this way the pro- 
spective purchaser can acquaint himself with the 
manufacturer's claims without finding it neces- 
sary to actually inspect the lathe. An expensive 




Fig. 1. — A simple type of wood-turning and light metal-turning 

lathe. 

lathe, with all attachments, involves, a considerable 
outlay of money, and none but an incautious pur- 
chaser would care to make this investment without 
first being sure of the quality of the tool he is 
buying. 



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Choosing a Lathe 19 

For wood turning and light metal work, which 
do not demand precision, only a simple and inex- 
pensive tool is necessary. A lathe intended en- 
tirely for this service is illustrated in Fig. 1. This 
is a Millers Falls lathe and sells for a very reason- 
able figure considering the work which comes with- 
in its range. Of course, one cannot expect to obtain 
great accuracy from a machine of this type, but for 
all ordinary purposes it will be found entirely 
adequate and capable of rendering good, reliable 
service. 

The lathe shown in Fig. 1 is driven by foot 
power with an adjustable pedal which can be 
moved from place to place so that the operator can 
always use his right foot no matter at what point 
of the lathe he is working. If the foot-power 
feature of this lathe is not desirable, it is a very 
simple matter to drive the machine with a small 
electric motor. As before stated, light metal work 
can oe done on this lathe. However, it is to be rec- 
ommended more for wood turning than for metal 
work. 

On a cheap lathe of this nature one cannot ex- 
pect to find bronze or babbitted bearings as it 
would be impossible to equip the machine with 
these desirable features at the low price asked. 
Neither is the machine provided with a slide rest 



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20 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



of any form and therefore all turning must be 
done with hand tools. 

A little wood-turning lathe of more substantia] 
construction, and selling at a much higher figure, 




Fia. 2. — A power-driven wood-turning lathe. 

is shown in Fig. 2. This is known as the Seneca 
Falls lathe and contains many features which are 
not included in the cheaper tool described above. 
It has a machined bed which is flat on one side and 
V-shaped on the other. This is a very important 
consideration and contributes greatly to the ac- 



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Choosing a Lathe 21 

curacy of the machine, since it keeps centers ex- 
actly opposite one another. This lathe has a 10- 
inch swing and the bed is 3 feet in length. The 
maximum distance between centers, or in other 
words the maximum length of work it will accom- 
modate, measures 14 inches. The lathe shown may 
be purchased with either a countershaft for power 
drive or with a foot-power attachment. This lathe 
has a cone pulley with four steps by means of 
which various changes in speed may be brought 
about. 

It is to be understood that wood turning can be 
accomplished on any lathe but, on the other hand, 
accurate metal turning can only be done properly 
en a metal-turning lathe. 

There are a few general points of construction 
which the purchaser should have in mind before 
choosing the lathe he is to use in his shop. The 
first thing he should »look out for is a hollow 
spindle. This is a very important consideration 
and contributes greatly to the usefulness and con- 
venience of the tool. Stock can be fed through this 
hollow spindle, and in the case of making dupli- 
cate parts a great saving in time and trouble is 
made possible. The use of the hollow spindle will 
be mentioned in a later chapter. Also, the end of 
the hollow spindle nearest the chuck should be 



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22 Lathe Work for Beginners 

bored out for receiving standard No. 1, Morse 
taper tools, etc. 

The next thing of importance to consider is 
the bearings. In fact, it can safely be said that 
a lathe is no better than its bearings. If the bear- 
ings are loose and inaccurate, it is impossible to 
accomplish accurate turning. The more expensive 
lathes are equipped with either bronze or bab- 
bitted bearings. These bearings should be of a 
cone shape so that it will be possible to take up 
the wear on the bearings as the lathe grows old. 
It is only possible to do this with a cone shaped 
bearing, and for this reason the amateur should 
try to secure a lathe with this feature. The ad- 
justment is generally brought about by a collar at 
the left-hand end of the live spindle. It is possible 
to screw this collar up to adjust the cone bearings. 

The lathe bed is an important thing and the 
accuracy of the machine will depend largely 
upon it. On smaller lathes of the bench type, the 
bed is generally made flat with a square slot in 
the center for guiding the tailstock in alignment 
with the headstock. On the larger sizes, the bed 
is usually provided with a V-shaped ridge on 
either one or both sides. This ridge acts as a 
guide for both tailstock and carriage, keeping 
them in the same position in relation to the centers. 



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Choosing a Lathe 23 

The bed of the lathe should always be machined, 
that is, it should always be milled by the manufac- 
turer. There are a number of amateur bench 
lathes on the market with un-machined beds, and 
they are not worth the metal that is in them. 

The tailstock of a lathe should be held by a 
clamp to the lathe bed, and by loosening this clamp 
the tailstock should be readily and quickly moved 
to any position within its range on the bed. The 
little lathe shown in Fig. 3 has a very useful ad- 
dition to its tailstock. There are two separate 
parts on the tailstock body. The top part can be 
moved on a swivel and thus the back or dead 
center can be adjusted for taper turning. The 
top portion of the tailstock can be held at various 
angles by means of a set screw at the back. Not 
many lathes possess this simple but useful form of 
tailstock, and yet, it is a feature well worth no- 
ticing. 

The lathe shown in Fig. 3 is a Barnes machine 
of the foot-power type. It is a screw cutting tool. 
By this is meant that the live spindle can be con- 
nected with a train of gears to the "lead screw," 
which is a long rod containing threads that runs 
parallel to the lathe body. By means of a splined 
nut, the carriage of the lathe can be caused to 
move by this lead screw when it is revolved by 



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24 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



the headstock spindle through the train of gears 
mentioned. In this way it is possible to cut screw 




Fig. 3. — A good type of screw-cutting lathe with foot-power drive. 
This lathe can also be driven by an electric motor. 

threads. All lathes, and especially those of the in- 
expensive variety, are not provided with the 
screw cutting fitments. A set of extra gears of 



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Choosing a Lathe 25 

various sizes should be provided with screw-cut- 
ting lathes, so that different speeds, which corre- 
spond to different threads, can be given to the lead 
screw. The lathe shown in Fig. 3 also has what 
are known as ''back gears.' ' This is an addition 
of great importance which should not be over- 
looked. With these back gears, it is possible to 




Fig. 4. — A small bench lathe of substantial design suitable for model 
making and small turning. 

greatly reduce the speed of the spindle and to 
multiply the power delivered to the spindle so 
as to accomplish heavy turning which could not 
be done at a higher speed. 

No lathe comes furnished with a chuck. The 
chuck is always considered as a separate attach- 
ment which is not included in the price of the lathe. 



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26 Lathe Work for Beginners 

Fig. 4 shows a small lathe of the Goodell-Pratt 
make which is a very substantial and well made 
little tool, reasonably priced. It is capable of 
doing very accurate work and, although limited 
in its capacity, it is an extremely useful machine ; 
with its attachments it can be used for practically 
any operation which the larger machines are 
equipped to handle. This lathe has cone bearings, 




Fig. 5. — A bench type precision lathe. 

a hollow spindle and a milled bed. The tailstock 
of this tool has a feature which is found on few 
machines. The tailstock spindle can be operated 
either by screw or lever. The lever method of mov- 
ing the tailstock spindle is extremely useful when 
drilling, since it permits rapid motion. This lathe 
is furnished with the attachments shown and other 
useful attachments can be purchased for it, as 
will be described in Chapter IV. 
A Stark precision bench lathe is shown in Fig. 5. 



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Choosing a Lathe 



27 



It must be understood that a lathe of the pre- 
cision type is essentially an expensive machine. 
Small precision lathes cost several hundred dol- 
lars without attachments. This is necessary 
owing to the great amount of skilled labor which 
enters into their construction. Every part must 
be machined to the last degree of accuracy. How- 
ever, for ordinary purposes the amateur does not 




Fig. 6. — A bench type precision lathe with compound slide-rest. 

need a precision lathe unless he desires to accom- 
plish extremely accurate work. In such cases, of 
course, the expenditure is justified. 

Another type of precision bench lathe is shown 
in Fig. 6. This is of the Rivett make, and while 
it is of the highest of accuracy and beauty of 
finish, there is no reason why the amateur who 
desires a tool for his hobby, should make the 
expenditure involved. Precision lathes have to be 



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28 Lathe Work for Beginners 

well taken care of. Otherwise they depreciate 
rapidly. In fact, no lathe will stand a great deal 
of abuse without showing it in the work it turns 
out. 




Fig. 7. — A foot-power screw-cutting lathe with a compound slide 

rest. 

Another type of metal turning lathe is shown in 
Fig. 7. This is a screw cutting lathe with foot 
power drive. The compound slide rest is a great 
convenience and is a point that should not be over- 



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Choosing a Lathe 29 

looked when purchasing a lathe. The tailstock 
of this machine can be off-set for turning tapers, 
which is another desirable feature. Another point 
in favor of this machine is the enclosing of the 
gears, which not only prevents them from getting 
dusty and filled with grit, but also covers them so 




Fig. 8. — The lathe shown in Fig. 7 mounted for bench work. 

that clothing or fingers cannot be caught. This 
lathe can be had with shorter legs to serve as a 
bench machine as shown in Fig. 8. 

The English Drummond lathe is shown in Fig. 9. 
This lathe can now be purchased in America, and 
is one of the best experimental lathes the beginner 
can acquire. The round bed is an innovation in 
lathe construction and has certain advantages as 
well as some disadvantages. The writer has heard 
machine critics say that there would be a tendency 



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30 Lathe Work for Beginners 

Qn the part of the carriage to twist when a real 
heavy cut is taken. However, this is well taken 
care of in its design, and this effect is unlikely in 
ordinary turning. The carriage of the Drummond 
lathe is moved by a lead screw which is placed 
concentrically within the bed. This screw is 
turned by the wheel at the end of the lathe. 




Pig. 9. — An English type Drummond lathe with a round bed. 

There is one valuable feature on this lathe 
which can be found on no American machine — a 
statement to be made with regret. That is the flat 
boring table on the carriage, which is provided 
with inverted T-slots. By means of a few clamps 
and bolts, pieces with various shapes can be se- 
cured for boring. It is difficult to realize the 
utility of this boring table until one tries to ac- 



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Choosing a Lathe 



31 



complish a heavy boring operation on an ordinary 
lathe. 

Motion is transmitted to the lead screw for 
screw cutting by means of a train of gears ar- 
ranged on an adjustable arm as shown in the illus- 
stration. The lathe is also provided with a set of 




Fig. 10.— A screw-cutting lathe with a motor mounted in the 
head. 

gears which will permit of different speeds for 
the lead screw. 

A new lathe that has been recently brought 
out is shown in Fig. 10. This is a radical 
departure from ordinary lathe construction, and 
is really designed somewhat after the English 
Drummond machine. It has its driving motor 



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32 Lathe Work for Beginners 

built into the headstock. This is an ingenious ar- 
rangement and adds much to the value of the tool. 
There are no belts, pulleys or countershafts to 
bother the operator. It is small and portable 
and it is only necessary to screw in the socket and 
turn on the current to place the machine in opera- 
tion. It is a screw cutting machine and has a 
maximum distance of 12 inches between centers. 




Fig. 11. — A good amateur bench lathe with parallel steel rods for 

the bed. 

By a clever method of shifting gears, it is given 
speeds of 125, 250, 400, 650 and 1000 R.P.M. 

A very rugged type of amateur lathe, produced 
by the Huhn Manufacturing Company, is illus- 
trated in Fig. 11. The unique feature of this lathe 
is its bed, which is composed of two cold-rolled 
steel rods. The particular lathe shown is a spe- 
cial one made with an extra long bed. The regular 
lathe of this type is manufactured with a maxi- 



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Choosing a Lathe 33 

mum distance of 12 inches between centers. This 
lathe has been produced after a design of Henry 
Greenley's, the English model engineer. A simi- 
lar lathe but much simpler in construction is de- 
scribed in Chapter XL 



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CHAPTER II 

SETTING UP AND DRIVING THE LATHE 

Unpacking the Lathe — Cleaning the Lathe — Setting up the 
Lathe — Foundation — Position — Leveling — Countershaft — 
Line Shaft — Power Necessary — Mounting Power Motor. 

Afteb the lathe is received and the boxing and 
crating removed, the purchaser should carefully 
examine the excelsior to see that no small parts 
are overlooked. It will be found that the polished 
parts of the lathe are well smeared with vaseline 
or grease, which is put on to prevent rusting while 
the lathe is in the store room or in transit. This 
grease can be removed nicely with a cloth soaked 
in gasoline. After the grease is removed roughly 
in this way, the polished parts can be gone over 
with a dry cloth which will remove all traces of 
grease, and the bright parts can then be given a 
coat of light lubricating oil to prevent rusting. 

The gears which come with the lathe will also be 
found covered with grease, and it might be well 
to immerse them in gasoline until all traces of 
grease are removed. 

If the lathe is a heavy one, the floor upon which 

34 



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Setting Up and Driving the Lathe 35 

it sits must be as rigid as possible. If the floor 
shakes it should be braced in some way, since the 
shaking will interfere greatly with accurate work, 
and will also do considerable harm to the lathe 
through facilitating vibration. The floor-space 
about the lathe should be clear, as it is sometimes 
necessary for the operator to work on both sides 
during certain operations. For this reason the 
lathe should not be set too close to the wall. The 
headstock end of the lathe should also be placed 
about 5 feet from the wall so that a long piece of 
stock can be fed through the hollow spindle. If 
the lathe is a fairly large one, and is to be set up 
in an outdoor work shop without a cellar, it is a 
good plan to provide a concrete foundation upon 
which to set it. Such a foundation can be pro- 
vided for by digging a hole a foot or so deep and 
lining the sides with wood. A concrete mixture 
can be poured in and the top leveled off. 

Much depends upon the way the lathe is 
mounted and leveled. After setting the lathe in 
position, it is leveled up in all directions the entire 
length of the bed. Shims are placed under its legs 
until it is brought to a perfectly level position. 
The lathe should then be fastened securely to the 
floor by means of lag screws or expansion bolts. 

It will now be necessary to mount the counter- 



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36 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



shaft on the ceiling. A countershaft is shown in 
Fig. 12. The pulleys A and B are the driving 
pulleys. The clutch is shown in G. The belt 
which goes from A to the line shaft is crossed once 
and the belt which goes from pulley B to the line 
shaft is straight. When the clutch C is in the neu- 
tral position shown, neither of the pulleys are in 
motion. When the clutch is thrown to the right, 
it engages the pulley B with the shaft, and thereby 




Fig. 12. — A countershaft for use with a small lathe. 

turns the cone D which is belted to the lathe. By 
throwing the clutch to the left, the pulley B is dis- 
engaged and the lathe thrown into reverse. 

The countershaft must be mounted securely on 
the ceiling, parallel with the lathe, but about a 
foot back so that the belt will incline slightly to- 
wards the operator. This is shown in Fig. 13. 
The shaft hangers should be fastened to the ceiling 
by the same method as was used in putting the 
countershaft in pace. The line shaft should be 



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Setting Up and Driving the Lathe 37 

about iy 2 inches in diameter, and the hangers 
placed about 6 feet apart. 

One pulley on the line shaft must be belted to 




Fig. 13. — How the lathe is set up in the shop. 

a pulley on the source of power, which may be a 
gas engine, electric motor, or, possibly, a steam 
engine. The size of this driving pulley will de- 



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38 Lathe Work for Beginners 

pend somewhat upon the speed of the power unit. 
The speed of the countershaft should be 225 E.P.M. 
for a 11, 12 or 13 inch lathe; 210 R.P.M. for a 14 
inch lathe; 200 E.P.M. for a 15 inch lathe and 180 
R.P.M. for a 16 or 18 inch lathe. 

The best source of power is the electric motor, 
since it can be started easily and does not require 
any attention after being started. Gas and gaso- 
line engines are not especially desirable, but of 
course, it is sometimes necessary to use them when 
electric power is not available. The horse power 
delivered to the line shaft should be as follows : 

11 inch lathe i/ 2 H.P. 

12 " " V 2 H.P. 

13 " " %H.P. 

14 " " 1H.P. 

The average electric motor of about 1 H.P. has 
a speed of about 1200 R.P.M. To cause the line 
shaft to revolve at the proper speed and to effect a 
reduction, it will be necessary to use a small pulley 
on the motor and a large one on the line shaft. 
An electric motor with as low a speed as possible 
should be purchased. The motor can be mounted 
in an inverted position on the ceiling or else placed 
upright on the shelf close to the ceiling. It will 
be necessary to use a starting box with all motors, 



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Setting Up and Driving the Lathe 39 

since a severe overload would be thrown on the 
line if the circuit was closed without the proper 
resistance. 

The lathe should be set in position so that the 
operator will have plenty of light to work with. 
If the lathe is to be used at night, a drop light 
should be placed so that it will come within about 
2 feet of the chuck. The light should be provided 




Fig. 14. — How the shaft hangers are held to the ceiling of the shop. 

with a shade to prevent it from shining into the 
operator's eyes. 

The setting up of a small bench lathe does not 
involve such a great amount of time and expense. 
It is necessary to provide a very substantial bench 
and to bolt the lathe to it securely. A heavy work 
bench overcomes vibration, and the bench de- 
scribed in connection with the home made lathe in 
Chapter XI is recommended for small amateur 
lathes. 



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40 Lathe Work for Beginners 

Bench lathes are generally provided with spe- 
cial countershafts which are designed especially 
to go with the lathes. A very ingenious and con- 
venient little countershaft is shown in Fig. 15. 
This is made for the Goodell-Pratt lathe, and by 
its use the lathe is brought under perfect control 
by the operator's foot. Unlike the larger counter- 




Fig. 15. — A small countershaft for a bench lathe. 

shafts, this one is provided with an idle pulley. 
Normally, the driving belt runs on this pulley. 
When the strap, which is shown, is pulled, the 
belt shifter changes its position and lines up with 
the pulley opposite to the idle pulley, and in this 
way shifts the belt over to the pulley which is 
permanently connected to the shaft. This starts 
the lathe. The strap should be connected with a 
wire to a small pedal mounted under the lathe 



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Setting Up and Driving the Lathe 41 

bench, and in this way the lathe is controlled by 
the foot, and remains in motion as long as the 
foot is pressed on the pedal. This little counter- 
shaft can be mounted on the wall in back of the 
lathe, or else, placed directly overhead. Much de- 
pends on local conditions and no set rule can be 
given. 

The motor used with most bench lathes need 
not be over 1/6 H.P., and the one shown in Fig. 16 




Fig. 16. — A small power motor suitable for driving a bench lathe. 

is a very suitable type. This motor is provided 
with an iron pulley and revolves at a speed of 
950 E.P.M. Such a motor will deliver sufficient 
power to the lathe spindle, and is very economi- 
cal in both upkeep and power consumption. 

Another countershaft of different construction 
for use with a small bench lathe is illustrated in 
Fig. 17. This, of course, is a more expensive type 
than the one previously described, although it per- 



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42 Lathe Work for Beginners 

forms exactly the same service. An ideal set-up 
for a small bench lathe is shown in Fig. 18. The 
countershaft just described is employed together 
with what is known as an overhead gear. The 
overhead gear is placed just above the regular 
countershaft and connected to one of the pulleys 




Fig. 17. — A special countershaft for use with a precision lathe. 

on the countershaft with a belt. This overhead 
gear is really a second countershaft which has 
a groved pulley mounted upon it. This pulley is 
used to drive grinding, drilling and milling at- 
tachments. Although it is not necessary for a 
lathe without these attachments, it must be in- 
cluded if such attachments are to be used. The 
control method shown in Fig. 18 is a very simple 
one. The lathe can be run in either direction by 



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Setting Up and Driving the Lathe 43 




SL 



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44 Lathe Work for Beginners 

simply pressing the foot on the proper pedal. If 
the countershaft is not driven from a regular line 
shaft, a small line shaft just long enough to ac- 
commodate two pulleys is driven by the motor. 
One belt is run straight and the reverse belt is 
crossed. 



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CHAPTER III 

THE LATHE AND ITS PARTS 

Analysis of the Lathe — Back Gears — Screw Cutting Parts — 
Apron — Carriage — Manipulation of Carriage — Care of 
Lathe, etc. 

The amateur should know his lathe and under- 
stand its parts and their functions. He should 
also know the names of the various parts of his 
lathe. 

Reference is made to Fig. 19. Here is shown 
the lathe, and each part has been given a letter. 
A is the headstock, and this includes all the parts 
of the working end of the lathe. The headstock is 
always fixed in position. B is what is known as 
the cone. On some lathes it consists of three 
different sized pulleys, while others have steps of 
four pulleys to provide four different speeds. The 
method of bringing about these different speeds is 
shown in Fig. 20. It will be seen that the pulley 
on the countershaft must be placed so that the 
large pulley will be opposite the small pulley on 
the lathe. If a low speed is desired, the belt is 
placed on the small pulley of the countershaft and 

45 



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46 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



on the large pulley of the lathe. This low speed 
can be greatly increased by shifting the pulley 
belt until it reaches the large pulley on the counter- 
shaft, and the small pulley on the lathe. When 




Fig. 19. — A substantial screw-cutting lathe. The names of the 
various parts are described in the text. 

in this position, the lathe will be turning at its 
maximum speed. C is the live center which has 
a Morse taper shank. The live spindle has a fe- 
male Morse taper into which the live center is 
placed. In removing this live center, it is best to 



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The Lathe and Its Parts 



47 



place a brass rod in the hollow spindle and knock 
out the center with a few gentle raps of a hammer. 
The headstock bearings are pointed out at D, D. 
These should be frequently oiled, and it is well 
to mention here that it is hard to give a lathe too 
much oil. E is the nose of the lathe. This is 




Fig. 20. — How the cone pulley on the countershaft and lathe spindle 
are arranged to obtain various speeds. 

threaded to receive a chuck, face plate, or driving 
plate. The threads on the nose of the lathe 
should be well taken care of. When a chuck or 
face plate is put on, it should be held as true as 
possible so as not to damage the threads, and the 
threads should be clean and free from chips. Care 



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48 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



should be exercised when the chuck is removed, 
since it is very easy to damage the threads when 
it comes to the point where they disengage. The 
threads on the nose of the lathe should be fre- 
quently washed off with gasoline to clean out any 
dirt or chips which may have lodged in them. 
This is one of the most sensitive parts of the 
lathe, and it should be well taken care of. 




Fig. 21. — How the back gears of a lathe are arranged. 

The handle F is used to throw the back gears 
in. A better understanding of the back gears will 
be had by referring to Fig. 21. For ordinary work 
the gear wheel is fastened to the first pulley on 
the cone. Different manufacturers have different 
methods of holding the cone to this gear. In most 
cases, the two parts can be disconnected by merely 
loosening a nut on the outside of the gear wheel. 



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The Lathe and Its Parts 49 

When this is done, the cone is free to revolve 
upon the live spindle without turning the spindle 
of the gear wheel 1. The small gear wheel 2, at 
the small end of the cone is fastened to the cone 
and thereby revolves with it. When the back 
gears are thrown in mesh, the gear 3 meshes with 
the little gear 2 on the cone, and the gear 4 
meshes with gear 1 on the live spindle.. In this 
way, motion is transmitted to the live spindle 
through gears 2, 3, 4 and 1. The back gears of a 
lathe are so mounted that a quarter of a turn of 
the handle will throw them in mesh. This should 
never be done while the lathe is in motion, since 
the gears are very apt to strip. By throwing out 
the back gears and engaging the nut to the cone, 
the spindle is driven direct. 

The headstock of the lathe is provided with an- 
other set of gears G, which transmits motion from 
the live spindle to the lead screw H. These gears 
will be treated more thoroughly in the Chapter 
on screw cutting. The lead screw on the lathe 
is used to move the carriage I: The speed of the 
carriage will depend upon the speed of the lead 
screw, and the motion of this in turn, will depend 
upon the ratio of the gearing between the lead 
screw and the live spindle. The lead screw of a 
lathe should be kept well cleaned and oiled, as the 



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50 Lathe Work for Beginners 

accuracy of all threads cut on the lathe depend 
entirely upon this member. 

The carriage I of the lathe generally has two or 
more handles or knobs upon the apron L. The 
handle M is called the apron handle, and by means 
of this the^carriage can be moved up and down the 
lathe bed, assisted by the rack N. The small 
handle is the apron clutch, and when this is 
turned a half nut clutches around the lead screw 
and thereby moves the carriage along the lathe bed 
This is generally done when a long cut is to be 
taken, and the proper gear ratio will have to be 
chosen to produce the right speed of the carriage. 
Several oil holes will be found on the apron of the 
carriage and these should be used frequently, in 
oiling the working parts of the lathe in back of this 
member. Some small lathes and all large ones 
are provided with automatic cross feeds, and in 
this case a knob is included on the apron to con- 
trol this operation. 

On the top of the lathe carriage is mounted the 
slide rest. This can be either compound or plain. 
A compound rest is divided into two distinct 
parts. A compound rest is shown in Fig. 22. The 
handle P moves the upper portion of the rest 
crosswise and the handle Q moves the tool, which 
is held in the tool post R, parallel with the lathe 



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The Lathe and Its Parts 



51 



bed. The slide rest can be swung through an arc 
of 90 degrees in either direction. This permits 
the tool to be brought to any angle within this 
range in its relation to the work. There is a scale 
on the compound rest so that the angle of the path 
of the tool, in relation to the center ljue of the 
lathe is always known. The cutting tool is held 




Fig. 22. — A compound slicte-rest. 

in the tool post R and clamped in position by the 
wrench 8>. 

The feed handle Q, which moves the tool parallel 
with the lathe bed, is used only in making com- 
paratively short cuts that will come within its 
range. Longer cuts which do not come within the 
limits of this method of moving the tool are ac- 
compli ol ^rl hy moving the whole carriage. 



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52 Lathe Work for Beginners 

AH the cross cutting is accomplished with the 
handle P. This member is able to move the tool 
post a distance from the center, which corresponds 
with the swing of the lathe and, or course, a cut 
greater than that can not be made. On some lathes 
of the more expensive type, the handle P is pro- 
vided with a micrometer collar which is graduated 
in such a way that cuts can be made accurately 
up to y 2 of 1/lOOOth of an inch. This collar is 




Fig. 23. — A micrometer collar placed on the cross-feed handle. 

shown in Fig. 23. The graduations upon it corre- 
sponds to the pitch of the cross feed screw. If this 
is known it is a simple matter to graduate the 
collar this way, and it adds greatly to the conve- 
nience of the lathe. The compound rest should 
be kept well lubricated, especially along the ways 
where the parts swing over one another. Small 
oil holes will be found to lubricate the screws 
which control the motion of the moving parts. 
All chips and dirt should be kept carefully wiped 
off. 



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The Lathe and Its Parts 53 

An ordinary slide rest is equipped with a cross 
feed which can travel only at right angles to the 
lathe bed. With such a slide rest, it is impossible 
to accomplish the work which can be done with r 
compound rest, such as taper turning, etc. The 
lathe bed T is machined to great accuracy. It 
should be kept well smeared with oil, and the 
Amateur should make it a rule never to place such 
tools as files, hammers and wrenches upon it. 
This is bad practice, and in time it will produce 
many little nicks upon the machined and scraped 
surfaces. The tailstock U can be made to slide 
along the lathe bed by loosening the binding nut 
which is controlled by the handle V. The tailstock 
handle W is used to move the tailstock spindle 
and center X either in or out, depending upon the 
direction upon which it is turned. The binding 
screw Y is used to hold the tailstock spindle in 
any position. For long taper turning, the back of 
the tailstock center is thrown off center by loosen- 
ing the screw Z. 



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CHAPTER IV 

LATHE ATTACHMENTS AND THEIR USE 

€enter Rests — Milling Attachments — Gear Cutting Attach- 
ments — Thread-Cutting Attachments — Grinding — Circular 
Saws — Turret. 

By the addition of various attachments, manu- 
facturers have greatly increased the usefulness of 
their machines, and such operations as sawing, 
milling, gear cutting and grinding can be done on 
lathes nearly as well as on machines designed 
especially for these purposes. It will be under- 
stood, of course, that each company designs its at- 
tachments for use only on machines of their own 
manufacture. This is true with very few excep- 
tions. There are few tool post electric grinders 
that can be used on any lathe, but most of the other 
attachments are designed especially for the lathe 
on which they are to be used. 

One of the few simple attachments which is pro- 
vided with equipment of every lathe without ad- 
ditional charge is shown in Fig. 24. This is known 
as a center rest. This particular device slides 
upon the lathe bed, and the tailstock must be taken 

54 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 55 

off before it can be put in place. It is locked in 
any particular position on the lathe bed by the 
binding nut and wrench. If a long shaft of small 
diameter was to be placed in the lathe for a turn- 
ing operation, it would spring in the center when 
the cutting tool was^ brought to bear against it. 
To prevent this, the three jaws of the center rest 
are adjusted to the surfaces of the shaft, to be 




Fig. 24. — A three-jawed center-rest. 

turned so that they will form a sort of temporary 
bearing which will prevent the shaft from spring- 
ing or bending when the cutting is done. The jaws 
of the center rest are adjustable within quite wide 
limits, and they are held securely in every position 
by means of binding screws. When this device is 
used, the point of the jaws should always be well 
lubricated to form an easy running bearing for the 
revolving shaft. 



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56 Lathe Work for Beginners 

It will be seen that by the use of this attachment 
the lathe tool cannot travel the full length of the 
shaft. To make this possible, a two-jawed center 
rest is often used. Such a center rest is shown in 
Fig. 25. During the turning, as the tool travels 
along the shaft, the center rest can be moved from 
one position to another until the cutting tool 




Fig. 25. — A two-jawed center-rest. 

reaches a point near enough the back center where 
it will be safe to dispense with the center rest. 
Nearly every company manufacturing lathes, 
makes a milling attachment for use with their 
machines. As before stated, a milling attachment 
must be purchased from the manufacturer of the 
lathe upon which it is to be used. A typical milling 
attachment is illustrated in Fig. 26. It will be 



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Lathe Attachments and Tlieir Use 



57 



seen that the base of this atachment rests on the 
lathe bed. The milling cutter is mounted upon an 




Fig. 26. — A lathe milling attachment. 

arbor which is placed in the live spindle of the 
lathe. Milling cutters are made with various di- 




Fig. 27. — A two-inch milling cutter. 

ameters, widths and faces. A sample 2 in. cutter 
is shown in Fig. 27. 

The milling attachment shown in Fig. 26 is a 



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58 Lathe Work for Beginners 

typical one. The handle 1 is for the cross feed 
and turns a screw which causes the whole upper 
portion of the milling attachment to travel across 
the lathe bed. Part 2 is a vise which holds the 
work which is to be milled. In the illustration 
shown, the work is indicated by 3. The standard 
or main frame 4 of the milling attachment is at- 
tached to the base by means of a swivel, so that 
this member can be turned and locked to any posi- 
tion up to 180 degrees. A scale reading of 5, indi- 
cates the position of the main frame. 

The vise is also arranged upon a swivel and this 
can be turned and locked to any angle. A scale is 
placed on the base of the vise by means of which it 
can be accurately set. The vise is arranged on a 
vertical slide so that it can be moved up and down 
by means of. the screw 6. It will be seen that this 
milling attachment is really a massive universal 
joint with a vise on it for holding the work. In 
this way, milling can be done at any angle. 

In using the milling attachment, the speed of the 
cutter will depend upon two things, i.e., the nature 
of the metal being cut and the size of the cut. In 
the case of cutting steel, the back gears of the 
lathe should always be thrown in. 

Another milling attachment a little more simple 
than the one previously described, is shown in Fig. 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 



59 



28. This is a substantial and well designed attach- 
ment that sells for a very reasonable figure con- 
sidering the work it is capable of doing. The base 
of the attachment rests on the lathe bed, and is 
provided with a cross feed which functions in the 




Fig. 28. — Another type of milling attachment. 

same manner as the cross feed of the attachment 
previously described. The main frame or angle 
piece turns on a swivel; its lower edge is semi- 
circular in shape and the scale is engraved directly 
upon this edge. The device can be turned to any 
angle up to 180 degrees. The vise is a very simple 
one, the vertical motion of which is controlled by 



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60 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



a handle or crank at the top. The vise can be 
turned to any angle within 180 degrees by means 
of a swivel. The scale by which the exact angle of 
the vise is known, is engraved upon the upper edge 
of the main frame. The milling attachment just 




Fig. 29. — A milling attachment for a bench lathe. This attach- 
ment has an index plate. 

described is designed for use on a South Bend, 
lathe. 

A little milling attachment designed for use 
with the Goodell-Pratt bench lathe is illustrated 
in Fig. 29. This little attachment is designed for 
very small work. The milling cutters have shanks 
14 inch in diameter, and these are held in a com- 
pression chuck. The work to be cut is also held 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 61 

in a compression chuck which forms a part of the 
attachment. The chuck which holds the work can 
be revolved, and is held in any one position by an 
index plate and dog. The index plates are inter- 
changeable and can be obtained with various di- 
vision marks. The vertical motion of the milling 
attachment is controlled by the crank at the top. 




Fig. 30. — A lathe gear-cutting attachment. 

Special milling cutters for use only with this device 
must be obtained from the manufacturer, or else, 
made by the operator. With this compact fitting 
it is possible to cut gears of various small diam- 
eters. By the use of many different types of 
milling cutters, which can be supplied, it is also 
possible to put this attachment to many other uses. 
A gear cutter designed for use with the Seneca 



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62 Lathe Work for Beginners 

Falls lathe is illustrated in Fig. 30. The opera- 
tion of this device is very simple, and it is capable 
of cutting gear wheels within a wide range of 
diameters. A long cylindrical gear 1 is attached 
to the live spindle of the lathe. Meshing with this 
is the gear 2, which drives the gear 3. Gear 3 
drives a spindle at the opposite end of which is 
a worm that meshes with the spiral gear. In this 
way motion is transmitted to the cutter 4, which is 
held in place on the mandrel. Different cutters, 
of course, can be placed upon the mandrel for 
different work. By manipulating the cross feed 
of the lathe, the cutter can be adjusted for a gear 
of any diameter within the range of the attach- 
ment. The gear 2 is on an adjustable arm which 
is locked in position by the nut 5. In cutting a 
gear wheel of larger diameter than the one shown 
in the illustration, the cross feed of the lathe 
would be drawn out towards the apron, and the 
arm which carries the gear 2 readjusted until the 
gear meshed properly with the large gear 1. 

The gear to be cut is placed on the mandrel, 
which in turn is held in a chuck. This chuck can 
be revolved in a circle. The index plate 6 con- 
trols the movement of the chuck. The index 
plate has a number of small holes drilled in it. 
These holes are drilled at regular intervals along 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 



63 



lines which are concentrically arranged along the 
face plate. In this way, a circle can be divided 
into practically any number of working parts. A 
gear can be cut with any number of teeth, or other 
work can be accomplished that must be equally 
divided. The plate 6 together with the crank 7 




Fig. 31. — A lathe gear-cutting attachment used to flute reamers. 

which carries a pin that fits into the holes, is prop- 
erly called a dividing head. 

The attachment shown in Pig. 30 can also be 
used for fluting reamers, as shown in Fig. 31. In 
this case an extension arm is placed on the attach- 
ment to accommodate the blank piece of stock. 

A combination cutter and milling attachment 
of somewhat different design is shown in Fig. 32. 



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64 Lathe Work for Beginners 

This is especially produced for use with a Stark 
precision lathe. The milling cutter is held at the 
outer end of the live spindle by means of a special 
mandrel. The milling atachment is so designed 
that a special compression chuck can be used for 
cutting gears, or an ordinary vise can be used for 
general milling purposes. The gear cutting de- 
vice is shown in use in Fig. 32. 



Fig. 32. — A gear-cutting attachment fixed to the head of a precision 

lathe. 

Lathes of the larger type are provided with 
lead screws with which screw cutting can be done. 
There are a few bench lathes, however, which are 
not designed to accomplish screw cutting in any 
way. A special screw cutting attachment pro- 
duced especially for use as an attachment on an 
Ames lathe is shown in Fig. 33. The large gear 1 
meshes with a gear upon the live spindle and there- 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 65 

by transmits motion to the shaft 2. This shaft 
carries a master screw and the pitch, of this screw 
determines the motion of the rod 3, which slides 
in the bearing 4-4. The rod 3 carries an arm 5 
upon which the tool holder 6 is mounted. A stand- 
ard thread cutting tool is placed in the tool folder. 



Fig. 33. — A screw-cutting attachment for the precision bench lathe. 

Thread cutting is accomplished in a similar way 
upon the Goodell-Pratt bench lathe. This particu- 
lar thread cutting attachment is illustrated in Fig. 
34. The master screw in this case is attached to 
the outer end of the live spindle. This master 
screw controls the motion of the rod which carries 
the toolholder and standard thread cutting tool. 

Another small attachment for a Goodell-Pratt 



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66 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



lathe is shown in Fig. 35. This is a turret which 
is provided with 6 half-inch holes. In these 




Fig. 34, — Another type of screw-cutting attachment for a bench 

lathe. 




Fig. 35. — A turret for a bench lathe with which six different opera- 
tions can be performed. 

holes various tools can be placed such as drills, 
dies, hollow mills, reamers and counter-sinks. 
This turret revolves upon its center so that when 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 



67 



one operation is done, the next tool can be brought 
into working position by means of the lever shown. 
When a mulitude of duplicate pieces of the same 
dimensions are to be made, this little attachment 
will prove to be of great value. 

A sawing attachment for a Goodell-Pratt lathe 
is shown in Fig. 36. With this little device it is 




Fig. 36. — A circular saw attachment for a bench lathe. 

possible to saw either wood or thin metal. The 
saw is mounted on an arbor which revolves be- 
tween centers. A table fits over the saw upon 
which the work rests. There are two guides fur- 
nished with the device, one for splitting and one 
for mitering. 

The jig saw attachment for the same make of 
lathe is illustrated in Fig. 37. This is a simple 



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68 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



little attachment which is driven by a crank held 
in the live spindle. The crank pin of this crank 
fits in a slide which causes the saw to oscillate back 
and forth rapidly when the lathe is in motion. 

Grinding attachments are also manufactured to 
operate with various types of lathes. A well de- 




Fig. 37. — A jig-saw attachment for a bench lathe. 

signed grinder for use with the Ames precision 
lathe is illustrated in Fig. 38. Such a grinding 
attachment must be driven with an overhead gear 
as illustrated in Fig. 18. The belt from the over- 
head gear revolves around one of the groups of 
pulleys 1. The grinding wheel 2 is thus caused to 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 



69 



revolve and is brought in contact with the work 3 
by the proper manipulation of the cranks 4 and 5 
on the compound rest. These grinders are manu- 



/ 






^^^v 


Mr ^ 


2 


*- ^ W m.-^- \ - J3 


i i \Jj&> 


4 <S 







Fig. 38. — A grinding spindle attached to the slide-rest of a precision 
bench lathe. 

factured in different forms, and an electrical one 
which can be placed in any tool post, is shown in 
Fig. 39. 
In the event the amateur mechanic desires to 



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70 Lathe Work for Beginners 

make a sawing attachment for his lathe the follow- 
ing design will prove very serviceable for use only 
on a Goodell-Pratt lathe. However, if the design 
is altered a little, the attachment can be made to 
serve on practically any small lathe. This attach- 
ment is shown in Fig. 40. The working drawing 
is given in Fig. 41. Mr. Joseph Dante, Jr., is re- 




Fig. 39. — An electric tool-post grinder for a large lathe. 

sponsible for the design of this particular attach- 
ment and he has described it as follows; 

"The attachment is run from the spindle of a 
lathe using a crank to drive the machine, or, if the 
builder wishes, he can construct a small slide 
bracket and make a pulley for the same. This 
will make the machine a unit in itself. Note that 
the assembled drawing has all the parts marked 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 



71 




SAWING ATTACHMENT 
FOR BENCH LATHE 



/Saw Connects Here 






^--* 



Driving Pin 5 /i6" Diam. 

No.l Morse Taper 



HJ 



e 



*3 



-*_ 



I! BO j ) SPINDLE DRIVER M.S. 



Fig. 40. — A homemade jig-saw for a bench lathe. 



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72 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



/^re-Top 



, s/id" Tap 



I®- 



M A"Tap 1 

ONE LOWER BRACKET C.I. 



OT 



i^ 


- -: 

t 


c 


1 

f 





rrt. 




i/2! 

- "irv 








>T 


r 


s 


sl^ 




""K* 


L ' ^2 




!*-%•-* 







ONE UPPER BRACKET C.I 



^ 



J 



ONE SAW FRAME SPJNDLE BRACKET C.I. i-U 




1 W- 



WToo 

Onll and counter* 
sink for wood screws 
ONE TABLE BRACKET CI 



# 



MP 




ONE BASE C.I. 



♦ T ° P \L 




W 



S x 



X K 




ONE ORIVING BLOCK CI 



ONE DRIVING PLATE CI. 



Ftg. 41. — The drawings for a small jig-saw. 

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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 



73 




* 



ONE SAWING TABLE (Hardwood) 

\* 8 W 



-t* 



3E 



ONE COLUMN ROD C.R.S. 



■#■ 



^%W»WK«y»oy 



-6Mf- 



K 



ONE SPINDLE ROD CR.S. 



'HjO ( f 

*** ra - < k S/*-KnHol« 



WHok^Tj , I 



ONE SAW FRAME C.R.S.F Vt"SQ.$TOCK 
— W H JVIhV. 




ONE SAW CLAMP SCREW M.S.K 










-Whole 



ONE LOWER SAW STUD M.S.F 



ONE KNURLED NUT M.S.F 



Fig. 41.— Continued. Drawings for a small jig-saw. 

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74 Lathe Work for Beginners 

with letters. The same also applies to the details.. 
Following is a description of the parts: 

Part A. The base is cast iron. The first opera- 
tion is to surface the bottom as per drawing. 
After this is done, drill a % inch hole, drill set- 
screw hole and tap % inches. A slot is then cut 
for the clamp bolt. 

Parts B and C. The upper and lower brackets 
are cast iron. These two blocks should be drilled 
in pairs so as to insure perfect alignment of holes. 
In part B drill a hole and tap % inch. The set 
screw for this hole should have a tit on one end 
3/16 inch in diameter so as to fit in the spline in 
the spindle rod and keep same in position. The 
set screw should have a very tight fit so that it will 
not work loose while running. 

Part D. The driving block is cast iron. Mill 
5/16 inch. The slot is 5/16 inch deep. If a milling 
machine is not at hand, a 5/16 inch hole can be 
drilled and then broken open at the side. ' Drill a 
y 2 inch hole and tap 14 inch for set screw. 

Part E. This is the driving plate and is cast in 
iron. A % inch hole is drilled in the center and 
at a % inch radius from the center plate. An- 
other hole is drilled to accommodate a 5/16 inch 
pin. When the stud is put in place, a 1/16 inch 
hole is drilled through the stud. Into this 1/16 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 75 

inch hole a pin is placed. The driving plate is 
2 inches in diameter as noted on the drawing. In 
the % inch center hole a No. 1 Morse taper shank 
is driven. 

Part F. This is the table bracket and it should 
be cast in iron like the rest of the parts. A % 
inch hole is drilled in its center. A % inch hole is 
drilled into this and tapped to receive a set screw. 
Four holes are then drilled as shown, at a 13/16 
inch radius to receive wood screws. These four 
holes are countersunk. 

Part G. This is the saw bracket. A y 2 inch 
hole is drilled .002 inch oversize so as to have a 
pressed fit on the end of the spindle. A % inch pin 
hole is also drilled in this member. The bracket 
is not pinned to the spindle until the saw frame is 
made. The screw holes should be transferred 
from the saw frame to the bracket. The assembled 
view shows to which side the saw frame is located. 

Part H. The wood table used is 6 inches in 
diameter, % inch thick with a 2 inch recess, y s 
inch deep to accommodate the bracket F. Drill a 
y 2 - inch hole for the saw through the table. 

Part 7. The saw frame is made of y 2 inch cold 
rolled steel bent as shown in the drawing. The 
two % inch holes are for screws, and they should 
be transferred from this to the spindle bracket 



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76 Lathe Work for Beginners 

which has two % inch tappet holes on a y 2 inch 
radius. 

Part J. This is the lower saw stud and it should 
have a pressed fit in the saw frame, a 1/16 inch 
pin hole being drilled completely through as 
shown. A y s inch pin is used for holding the 
saw in place. 

Part K. This is the upper stud and one end 
is filed halfway as shown, and a % inch pin is used 
for holding the saw. This also applies to part J. 

Parts M and N. M and N are the column and 
spindle rods and they are made from cold rolled 
steel stock with a bright finish. 

The saws used on the small sawing attachment 
can be purchased at any hardware store and are 
what are known as 6 inch coping saws. The saws 
have looped ends which are very convenient for 
holding them to the saw frame. The price for 
these saws range from 12 to 45 cents per dozen. 

The capacity of the sawing attachment can be 
increased by making the part 1 (shown in the 
drawing) larger. Larger saw blades must then 
be used." 

A very good substitute for a milling attachment 
is shown in Fig. 42. This is a filing attachment 
designed for use on a small Goodell-Pratt lathe. 
Such a simple little attachment can also be made 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 



77 



for lathes of other types and by its use it is pos- 
sible to cut equal flat surfaces on circular work and 
provide accurate squaring of small pieces. The 
device is really a file rest H^sed in connection with 
an improvised index head. The designer describes 
this attachment as follows : 




Saw in direction 
of arrow 



Fig. 42. — The main casting for a file rest. 

"We will first describe the method of construct- 
ing the file rest. This particular attachment was 
designed to fit the amateur's bench lathe No. 125 
made by the Goodell-Pratt Co. Leg A (Fig. 42) 
is cast square since it is less difficult to make the 
pattern for a square casting than for a round 



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78 Lathe Work for Beginners. 

one. The pattern is cut from a solid piece of 
wood. Soft pine is probably the easiest to work 
although mahogany or cherry are undoubtedly the 
best on account of their freedom from warping. 
A jig saw is the easiest way to cut the pattern, 
especially with one in which the table be tipped. 
In this case the table is set at an angle of about 
85 degrees which will give the requisite draft as 
shown in Fig. 44. The cuts are taken in opposite 
directions (see Fig. 42), and following around the 
outline of the piece. The metal used is crucible 
steel, although, if the amateur desires to save time 
in machining, cast iron can be uged. Of course, 
the piece may be forged, but for anyone capable 
of using this method of construction, there is no 
need of instruction. Another method is to saw 
the whole piece from cold rolled stock, but unless 
there is a power saw available this method will 
be found exceedingly tedious. 

"On receiving the casting from the foundry, it 
should be treated as follows : First run it over 
an emery wheel to remove the scale. Next, centers 
1 and 2 (Fig. 42) should be prick-punched. In 
doing this, be sure that the line between the 
centers passes down the center of the leg and is as 
nearly parallel to faces B and C as possible. The 
casting is next center-drilled on these marks, set 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 



79 



between centers, and machined to the finished size. 
In machining, it will be found necessary to com- 



HP" 



IE 






Fig. 43. — Front view of the casting. 

pensate for the off-center weight of the casting 
by mounting a weight on the opposite side of the 

In making +he paHern 
leave square, 



T 



i 



a 



Fig. 44. — Back view of the casting. 

face plate. Unless this is done it will not be pos- 
sible to machine the stock truly. Scribe the lines 
E and cut the slot for the rollers with a hack 



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80 Lathe Work for Beginners 

saw to the dimensions shown in Fig. 43. The 
sides of the slot are next filed up as true as 
possible with the center line of the leg A. It is 
better to make the two slots of the same width as 
in that case, rollers will be interchangeable. Next 
comes the task of drilling the holes for the roller 
pins. The centers of these holes are found by 
scribing lines F, which should be as nearly parallel 
as possible to the bed of the lathe when the casting 
is set in the tool rest. One of the easiest ways of 
doing this is to place the casting in the tool rest 
and scribe in the tailstock. Place the tool rest on 
the ways and set the casting to the desired height. 
Press it against the scribe and move the tool rest 
across the ways so that the scriber will mark a 
line. The intersection of line F with the center 
G and H of the arms are thus marked and may be 
prick-punched. The holes may now be drilled, but 
great care must be taken that the center lines of 
the holes are parallel to the lathe bed. Otherwise 
the work done with the tool will not be accurate* 
One method by which the holes may be accurately 
lined up is described as follows : Place the casting 
in the tool rest and parallel with its foot or base. 
Clamp the tool rest at right angles to the ways (a 
fairly accurate right angle setting may be obtained 
by use of the try square). Chuck a 7/32 drill and 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 81 

true it up. Loosen the clamp of the tool rest and 
move the casting until the drill point touches 
either arm B or C at one of the points, which has 
already been located. Then re-clamp the rest, 
making sure that it is still at right angles to the 
ways. Bring up the tailstock and mark carefully 
where its center touches the work. After prick- 
punching on this mark, re-center on the point of 
the drill and the tailstock center. Unclamp the 
tool rest, and, holding it firmly down with the left 



( i- 

|o HP 



cz 



Lj-Jk 



© 



Fig. 45. — The dimensions of the roller pins. 

hand, force the work against the drill point by 
means of the tailstock screw. When one side of 
the arm has been drilled, reverse the work and 
drill the other side. In a similar manner, drill the 
other side. If a reamer is handy, drill the holes 
slightly undersize and ream to the finished size. 

"The next pieces to be machined are the pins 
shown in Fig. 45. These are cut from cold rolled 
stock and turned up on the lathe. 

"The rollers are turned nearly to size from 
good machine steel, then hardened and ground. 
As will be noted from the drawing, Fig. 46, there 



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82 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



are two kinds of rollers. Those with a shoulder 
are of great use when squaring up to a definite 
point, while the straight rollers should be used for 
longer pieces. 




WM 



These roller* 
to be hardened 
and ground. 



© 



Fig. 46. — The dimensions of the rollers. 

. "The purpose of the index head is, first, to hold 
the stock fixed in one position while one side of 
it is being filed; and, secondly, to rotate the stock 
through any desired angle. A simple and practi- 
cal method of construction is shown in Figs. 47 and 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 



83 



48. " No exact dimensions are given for the reason, 
that in the majority of cases the design will have 
to be modified to fit the size of the machine and the 
needs of the operator. The device is made up as 
follows: A y s inch by y 2 inch cold-rolled steel 
bar is clamped around the headstock, as shown in 
Fig. 47. The bar is bent at right angles, as shown 




wtvruiS' 



tys'Phm^cr) 



Fig. 47. — How the index attachment is fixed to the lathe. 

by the dotted lines in Fig. 48, and a hole N drilled 
through it parallel to the center line of the live 
spindle. This hole must be large enough to take 
the cold-rolled tube shown in Fig. 47. The inside 
diameter of the tube is 3/16 inch. The tube is 
brazed or threaded into place. A plunger, like- 
wise shown in Fig. 47, is turned up on the lathe 
and a hole for a 1/16 inch pin drilled through it 
close to one end. In assembling, the plunger is 



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84 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



slipped into place and a light compression spring 
is placed around the plunger and between the tube 
and the pin. In the periphery of the driving 
pulley nearest the headstock, slots are milled into 
which one end of the plunger fits. These slots 
should be 3/16 inch by 5/32 inch, and their center 



frlots 3K«x *n"-B°Apart-2 




Armarrangtd ^ 
<n most convtnicnt \ 
j position. 



Fig. 48. — The index pulley for the filing attachment. 

lines placed 15 degrees apart. The amateur is 
probably not equipped to mill these slots and it 
is much better to have this done at some properly 
equipped shop, than to attempt cutting them out 
with hacksaw and file. In sending out the pulley, 
a properly centered arbor should go with it as this 
will cut down the cost of the machine work to a 
considerable extent. 



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Lathe Attachments and Their Use 85 

"A practical illustration of the way the device 
works is given below. Suppose it is required to 
square a piece of round stock of % inch diameter; 
the diameter across the flats to be % inch. To 
begin with, center a piece of stock and turn it 
down to 3/16 inch diameter. Place the file in 
guide in the tool rest so that the arms surround 
the 3/16 inch stock. Place a flat bar of known 
thickness on the rollers and above the stock. Ad- 
just the height of the rollers until the distance 
from the top of the flat stock to the bottom of the 
3/16 inch, piece is equal to the thickness of the 
flat stock, plus one half of the diameter across the 
flats, plus one-half the diameter of the stock on 
centers. In the illustration given, if the flat stock 
is y 4z inch plus 3/32 inch, plus y s inch or 15/32 
inch. The height of the rollers having been prop- 
erly adjusted, the stock which it is required to 
square, is placed in the lathe and filed. One side 
of the squared surface is thus obtained, and by 
means of the index head the other three surfaces 
may be accurately obtained. In squaring holes or 
cutting key-ways, a file of the proper width is 
obtained, the rollers raised to such a height that 
the center of the file is on a plane with the center 
of the stock, and the file forced against the work. ' J 



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CHAPTER V 

MEASURING TOOLS AND THEIR USE 

Scale — Square -V Outside Calipers — Inside Calipers — Depth 
Gauge — Microineter Depth Gauge — Micrometer — Vernier 
— Use of Micrometers — Drill Gauge — Spring Dividers — 
Thread Gauges — Snap Gauges — Use of Measuring Tools.- 

The lathe operator must know how to mani- 
pulate mechanical measuring instruments before 
he can accomplish accurate work upon his ma- 



I M ■ I i^i 1 ■ 1 1 1 i^i I ■ | ■ I ■ |j I ■ | 



ll ,21 .3 



8 



lilililililiiilihlihlililililililililililililihlihlililililili 



41 



Fig. 49. — A machinist's four-inch scale. 

chine. This Chapter will be given over to infor- 
mation regarding the use of such tools. 

The most simple and widely used measuring 
tool is the scale. The scale is really a ruler made 
of thin steel. A scale is shown in Fig. 49. Steel 
scales always have two graduations on each side, 
four graduations in all. Graduations are usually 
in 16ths, 32nds and 64ths. Scales are made which 

86 



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Measuring Tools and Their Use 87 

are graduated in lOOths, but these are very diffi- 
cult to read with the naked eye. A 64th of an inch 
is generally the limit to work with when using an 
ordinary scale. Measurements beyond this can 
be made with a micrometer, which will be de- 
scribed in a latter part of this Chapter. Great care 
should be taken of the machinist's* scales as they 
are made of the best steel and rust rapidly when 
exposed to moisture. It is best to keep the scale 



i|i|i|'|'|i|.il 



ililihlililil'lililililihli* 



\m 



jwv 



iiiMuid 



T Yi [ |'p 1 1 1 

r 



i ^ 



TTT1 




1 



Fig. 50. — A scale and square combined. 

in a little leather slip which can be kept in the vest 
pocket. 

A combination square and scale is shown in Fig. 
50. Such a square is not only convenient in 
squaring up work, but it also can be used as a 
scale. Squares of this kind are made in various 
sizes and it is best to have at least one small one 
on hand. A good substitute for this type of 
square, although somewhat more costly, is shown 
in Fig. 51. A 45 degree angle can also be meas- 



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88 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



ured off with this tool, and it will be seen from 
the drawing, that the scale is adjustable. It is 
held in any one position by a knurled nut. This 




PPf 

, GOQOELL-PRATT CIM»ANY GREEMTELD MASS.U.SA" ' . 

.iJ.i.i^.i.i.i^i.iiLl.bhi.i.iJiLi.i^itl.ui.hLiiiiiiiiiin^iMj.i.i.Kiiiiiii, 



Fig. 51. — A combined scale and square with 45° angle. 




Fig. 52. — Inside calipers. 

square is also provided with a water level which 
is very convenient for many uses. 

Inside and outside calipers are measuring tools 
which are used a great deal in lathe work. An 



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Measuring Tools and Their Use 89 




Fig. 53. — The use of inside calipers. 



Jf|'|'|T|T|T 




•|.|i|<|i|i|i|ij<|i|<i>m>|i|i|i|i|>|i|>|i|>i'|>i>|<M 



Fig. 54. — The adjustment of inside calipers. 



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90 Lathe Work for Beginners 

inside caliper is shown in Fig. 52, and its use is 
shown at Fig. 53. If a cylinder was being turned 
out to a diameter of 1 inch on the lathe, the inside 
calipers would be adjusted as illustrated in Fig. 
54. Inside calipers would then be continuously 
applied to the inside of the cylinder during the 
cutting until they just fitted. .They should not 




Fig. 55. — Calipers for outside measurements. 

be forced into the cylinder, since this would cause 
them to pinch together and an accurate measure- 
ment would not be obtained. The tool should be 
placed on the inside of the cylinder very easily, 
and, after considerable use, the mechanic will find 
that he has developed a very sensitive "feel" in 
his finger tips which will tell him whether or not 
the inside of the cylinder is a trifle too large or 



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Measuring Tools and Their Use 91 




Fig. 56. — Adjustment of outside calipers. 




Fig. 57.— The use of outside calipers. 



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92 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



too small. The expert mechanic is so accustomed 
to the use of inside calipers- that he can easily de- 
tect the difference caused by l/1000th of an inch. 
Outside calipers are shown in Fig. 55, and the 
method of adjusting them is shown in JFig. 56. 
The use of these calipers is shown in Fig. 57. The 
calipers should never be forced over the work 
since this will cause them to spread and the true 



/Lock Screw 



Fig. 58. — A depth gauge. 

measurement will not be obtained. They should 
be manipulated in such a way that very small 
differences in size can be detected. This comes 
only through continued use and experience, and 
the beginner cannot hope to make extremely ac- 
curate measurements. 
A depth gauge is illustrated in Fig. 58, and its 



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Measuring Tools and Their Use 



93 



use is shown in Fig. 59. A depth gauge is used 
to measure the depth of a drilled hole. The little 
gauge shown can be very easily made by the me- 
chanic. When it is withdrawn from the hole, the 




Fig. 59. — The use of the depth gauge. 




Fig. 60. — A micrometer depth gauge. 

length of the wire from one end to the holder will 
indicate the depth of the hole. This can be mea- 
sured with a scale. 

A micrometer-depth gauge is illustrated in Fig. 
60. This is used only for work requiring great 



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94 Lathe Work for Beginners 

accuracy. The micrometer scale on this instru- 
ment is read in the same way as the scale on the 
micrometer described in the following paragraph. 
A simple micrometer of 1 inch capacity is illus- 
trated in Fig. 61. This instrument must be 
brought into use when very accurate turning is 
to be done. If work is to be done that is required 
to be accurate, within a thousandths of an inch, 
it is not well to rely upon the calipers. A microm- 




Fig. 61. — A micrometer for very accurate measurements. 

eter measurement can be absolutely relied upon 
to be accurate within a thousandth of an inch. 
Reference is made to the illustration of the 
micrometer. Here it will be seen that there are 
two scales, a horizontal one upon the arm which 
projects from the jaws and one upon the edge of 
the movable thimble which either advances or re- 
cedes according to the direction in which it is 
turned. As this thimble is turned, the jaws move 
with it. The screw which controls this movement 
has an exact pitch of 40. Thus, it will be seen, 



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Measuring Tools and Their Use 



95 



that for one complete revolution of the thimble, 
the jaw advances or recedes l/40th of an inch, de- 
pending upon the direction in which it is turned. 
One fortieth of an inch is equivalent to .025. If 
the thimble was turned forty times, the microm- 
eter would be opened to exactly an inch. The hori- 
zontal scale on the arm of the micrometer is di- 
vided into forty parts, so that for every revolution 



12 3 4 5 6 7 




-20 



S/eeve 

10 

— ThimblQ 

Fig. 62. — A micrometer scale. 



which the thimble makes, it will move the distance 
of one of these divisions. If the thimble was 
moved from to the point 5 on the horizontal 
scale, the jaw of the instrument would be opened 
y 2 inch or 20 divisions. ^ It will be seen that the 
divisions of this scale are grouped off, every fifth 
line being numbered as shown clearly in Fig. 62. 
If there was not a scale engraved upon the edge of 
the thimble, it would be impossible to measure ac- 



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96 Lathe Work for Beginners 

curately for certain parts of an inch. The little 
scale engraved on the edge of the thimble makes 
it possible to measure every part of an inch. The 
scale on the thimble is divided into twenty-five 
equal parts and it is marked from to 20. If one 
complete revolution of the thimble advances the 



Sleeve 



-20 

— ThimblQ 



Fig. 63. — A micrometer reading of i inch (.250). 

jaw 0.25 of an inch, l/25th of a revolution, which 
can be determined by the divisions on the scale 
which is placed on the edge of the thimble, will 
represent l/25th of .025, or l/000th of an inch. 
Thus, if the scale is adjusted as shown in Fig. 63, 
the reading of the micrometer will be exactly .250 
or 14 inch. If it had passed the largest mark and 
gone on to 5, the reading would have _been .255. 



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Measuring Tools and Their Use 97 

In using a micrometer the beginner will find it 
difficult to read the instrument quickly until a little 
experience is gained. It is also quite necessary to 
know the decimal equivalents of most of the com- 
mon fractions such as ^4, %, %, %, %, etc. Com- 
mon fractions can easily be changed to decimal 




Fig. 64 .— A micrometer vernier for measuring with an accuracy of 
one ten-thousandth of an inch. 

fractions by dividing the numerator by the de- 
nominator in this way: 

% of an inch = 3.00 -5- 4 = .750 

The micrometer can be used to measure 1/1000 
of an inch, by employing a vernier attachment 
as illustrated in Fig. 64. This vernier attachment 
divides the sub-divisions on the thimble scale into 
10 parts. 

The more expensive micrometers are provided 
with means to adjust them should they become in- 



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98 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



accurate through abuse. All makers do not em- 
ploy the same means. In the Starrett micrometer, 
the anvil is fixed and the correction is easily made 
with a small wrench which turns the line on the 
sleeve until it coincides with the zero mark on the 




Fig. 65. — A micrometer with a test piece used for maintaining its 
adjustment. 




Pig. 66. — A drill gauge. 

thimble. Other makers furnish a test piece as 
illustrated in Fig. 65. This test piece is exactly 
1 inch in diameter. 

The lathe operator will find frequent use of a 
small drill gauge, since the lathe is often pressed 
into service in drilling holes. Many operators 



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Measuring Tools and Their Use 



99 



prefer to use the lathe in place of a drill press 
when this is possible. A drill gauge is illustrated 
in Fig. 66, and this type is capable of determining 
drill sizes from No. 1 to 60. Sizes beyond this 
(Nos. 61 to 80) are measured with a gauge of a 




Fig. 67. — Spring dividers and scriber. 

smaller size. Such drill gauges can also be had for 
measuring from l/16th to y 2 inch by 64ths. When 
the size of the drill is to be determined, it is fitted 
in the holes until the hole is reached in which the 
drill fits tightly. 

Spring dividers are used more for marking 
tools than for measuring. A pair of spring di- 



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100 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



viders is shown in Fig. 67. The points of these 
dividers are of hardened steel and extremely 
sharp, maMng them suitable for scribing lines on 
metal surfaces. They are also used in determin- 
ing dimensions between points of lines, and for 
transferring lengths from a scale to the work. 




Fig. 68. — Adjusting spring dividers. 

When used for this purpose, the dividers are ad- 
justed as shown in Fig. 68. 

Another important little measuring tool which 
should be in the possession of every mechanic is 
shown in Fig. 69. This is a thread gauge and is 
used to determine the number of threads per inch 
of a screw. Thus, if the mechanic has a screw 
which he desires to duplicate, he can first find the 
number of threads it has to the inch by the use of 



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Measuring Tools and Their Use 101 

this little instrument, and then adjust his lathe to 
cut a similar thread. The use of the instrument 
is very clearly illustrated in Fig. 70. Each one 
of the blades represents a certain thread. The 




Fig. 69 .—A small thread gauge. 

blades are tried to the thread until one is found 
that will fit snugly. Each blade is marked; the 
thread shown in -Fig. 70, indicated by the number 



£^~3 




Pig. 70. — The use of a thread gauge. 

on the blade, which is 18, meaning 18 threads to 
the inch. 

For duplicate lathe work snap gauges are often 
employed. Such a gauge is depicted in Fig. 71. 
Each gauge is made for a certain dimension; they 



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102 Lathe Work for Beginners 

are cut very acurately, and the work is turned 
down until it will fit properly between the jaws. 




Fig. J?\. — A snap gauge. 

Such gauges are very expensive and the amateur 
mechanic will find little need for their use. 



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CHAPTER VI 

A LESSON IN METAL TURNING 

Cutting Action of Lathe — Lathe Tools — Use of Various Tools 
— Grinding Tools — Simple Turning — Finding Centers — 
Mounting Work — Lathe Dog — Positive and Negative Rake 
on Lathe Tools — Hand Turning — Hand Turning Tools — 
Using Lathe as Drill Press— Notes on Drills — Disc Grinder. 

Before the worker attempts to turn metal on 
his lathe, he should first thoroughly understand 
lathe tools and their cutting action. A lathe tool 
is made of hardened tool-steel, provided with a 




Fig: 72. — The direction of the work in relation to the lathe tool. 

proper cutting edge. The cutting edge of the tool 
is brought into contact with the metal as illus- 
trated in Fig, 72. The direction of the work is 
noted by the arrow. When the tool is forced 
against the work in the lathe, the cutting edge of 

103 



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104 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



the tool digs under the surface of the metal and 
curls off a small thread. The amount of metal 
which the tool is able to remove depends upon the 
sharpness of the tool, the softness of the metal, the 
size of the lathe and its driving motor. On a small 
amateur lathe, it will be possible to take but a very 
small cut. 

A complete set of lathe tools is illustrated in 



O 



Round Nose. Too/s 



Thread-Cuffing Toot 



X2> 



CuH-ing Off Tool 



X 



Parting Too/ 



Boring Toofs 



Right-Hand Side Too/ 



Uft-HandSichTooi 



2: 



RighhHand Diamond-Poirrfcd Tool 

2^> 



Utt-Hand Dhmond-Poinhd Tool 



Fig. 73. — A complete set of lathe tools. 

Fig. 73. Each one of these tools has a special use, 
and if good work is to be done each tool must be 
used in the proper place. Long experience has 
taught that several varieties of turning cannot be 
accomplished successfully with a single tooL 
Lathe tools are of different sizes. For very small 
lathes, tools % inch square are used. On larger 
lathes, % inch stock is employed, and sizes larger 
than this are generally of oblong section. 



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A Lesson in Metal Turning 105 

Lathe tools must be kept sharpened. This is 
done on a grinding wheel and some experience is 
necessary to properly sharpen a tool. The begin- 
ner must be careful that he does not "burn" the 
tool while grinding it. If the tool is allowed to 
remain in contact with the grinding wheel too 
long, its temper will be withdrawn and the part 
which came in contact with the wheel will turn 
blue. While grinding a tool it should be occa- 
sionally in a convenient receptacle of cold water. 
This will facilitate grinding and prevent the point 
of the tool from becoming soft. After this grind- 
ing operation, the finish can be put on with a few 
strokes of a small carborundum hand stone. 

It has been stated before that each turning tool 
has a specific use. The reader will thoroughly 
understand the use of the various tools by refer- 
ring to Fig. 74. 

It will be assumed that a small brass pin is to 
be turned out according to dimensions noted in 
Fig. 75. The first thing necessary will be a piece 
of % inch round brass stock 4 inches long. Since 
this brass stock has to be turned between centers 
on the lathe, it will be necessary to find the centers 
of the stock. Before this is done both ends of the 
stock must be faced up by placing the stock in 
the chuck and using the left hand facing tool. The 



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106 



Lathe Work for Beginners 





Right Hand 
Facing Tool. 



Left Hand 
Facing Tool. 





Lfcft Hand 

Diamond Pointed 

Tool. 



Right Hand 

Diamond Pointed 

Tool. 



Round Nose 
Tool. 




Cutting -off 
Tool. 



Thread Cutting 
Tool. 



B<*>t Thread 
Ci/rting Tool . 




Boring Tool. 




Inside Thread 
Tool. 



Fig. 74. — The use of lathe tools. 

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A Lesson in Metal Turning 



107 



use of this tool is clearly shown in Fig. 74. The 
most convenient way of finding the centers is by 
the use of a self-centering punch which is illus- 




Fig. 75. — A piece of sample turning. 

trated in Fig. 76. This punch is placed over the 
end of the stock and given a smart blow with a 
machinist's hammer. Both ends are treated alike. 




Fig. 76. — A self-centering punch. 

The punch mark will then be in the center of the 
work. 

There are several other ways of finding the 
approximate center of the stock. One of these is 



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108 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



clearly illustrated in Fig. 77. Here a pair of 
spring dividers are nsed. The four marks shown 
are scratched and the punch mark is then made 
as close as 4 possible to the center of the enclosure 
formed by these marks. 
Having found the center of each end of the 




© 



Fig. 77. — Finding a center for spring dividers. 

stock, it will now be necessary to drill out the ends 
to receive the lathe centers. For this a small 
centering drill such as illustrated in Fig. 78 is 
used. This not only drills the centers but counter- 
sinks them as well, so that the centers of the 
lathe will fit at illustrated in Fig. 79. If an ordi- 



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A Lesson in Metal Turning 109 

nary drill was used for this purpose the centers 
would appear as shown in Fig. 80. The sharp 

« & ) O 

Fig. 78. — A centering drill. 

edge resting on the tailstock center would soon 
wear down when the work was revolved and this 
would cause a loose bearing which would interfere 




Fig. 79. — Proper lathe centers. 

with accurate turning. The counter-sunk hole 
produced by the centering drill has the same angle 
as the centers of the lathe and therefore a good 
bearing will result. 




Fig. 80. — Centers made with an ordinary drill. 

The chuck is now taken off the lathe and re- 
placed by the driver plate. The tailstock center 
is inserted in the tailstock spindle and the live 



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110 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



center is placed in the hand-stock spindle. When 
this is done, the stock is clamped in a lathe dog. 
A lathe dog is shown in Fig. 81 and the method of 
using it on the lathe is shown in Fig. 82. It is 




)Arm 



% Set Screw 

Fig. 81. — A lathe-dog. 

by means of the lathe dog that the motion of the 
live spindle is transmitted to the work. Otherwise 
the live spindle would merely slip around in the 
center hole of the piece to be turned. In mount- 
ing the stock in the lathe, it is first placed on the 

—Driver P/afe' 




Fig. 82. — Methods of using a lathe-dog. 

live center with the arm of the dog resting in the 
slot of the driver plate. Holding the stock in place 
with one hand, the tailstock is slid into place with 
the other and clamped. The spindle of the tail- 
stock is then moved forward until the center comes 
to rest in the other center hole of the work. This 



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A Lesson in Metal Turning 



111 



center should not force the work between the cen- 
ters too tightly since this would cause undue fric- 
tion. The back or tailstock center would be moved 
forward just enough so that the work will not be 
loose. When this is done, the binding screw on 
the tailstock spindle is tightened and a drop of 
oil is placed on the tail-stock center. 

The work is now in position for turning. The 
first operation will be that of roughing the work 



Negative 
Rake 




Fig. 83. — Showing the meaning of a negative rake. 

down to within 1/32 inch of its ultimate diameter. 
This is done with a roughing tool. Before setting 
this tool in the tool post, it must be remembered 
that brass is the metal being turned and that this 
particular metal has peculiar properties which 
necessitate what is known as a negative rake on 
the turning tool. A tool with a negative rake is 
one which is ground as shown in Fig. 83 with the 
cutting edge inclining to the work. A positive 
rake is a tool with a cutting edge which inclines 



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112 Lathe Work for Beginners 

from the work. Such a tool is used for turning 
steel. If a tool with a positive rake was used in 
turning brass a very bad accident would be apt to 
occur. Brass is a comparatively soft metal and 
when such a tool is brought in contact with it it 
has a tendency to "bite in." This sometimes 
causes the motor to stall due to an excessive load. 
If the motor is a really powerful one, the belts 




Fig. 84. — Lathe tool in position for cutting. 

will merely slide around. Sometimes the lathe 
tool is unable to stand the strain and snaps off. 
The work being turned is invariably spoiled when 
this happens. Therefore the mechanic should 
always see that he has a tool ground with a nega- 
tive rake for turning brass. 

The roughing tool with the negative rake is 
mounted in the tool post and brought up to about 
5 degrees above the center of the work (see Fig. 
84). The lathe tool can be adjusted before the 



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A Lesson in Metal Turning 113 

work is placed between centers. It can be mounted 
in the tool post and raised or lowered until its 
cutting edge is exactly on the same level as the 
point of the centers. When the work is mounted 
in place the edge of the cutting tool will then be 
in proper position. 

The piece is now ready for turning. The lathe 
should be run at a medium speed with the belt on 
the middle pulley. It is customary to turn brass at 
a higher speed than that used in ordinary steel or 
iron turning. The slide rest is manipulated until 
the cutting tool reaches the back edge of the stock. 
The cross feed is then run in about 1/16 of an inch 
and left in this position. The lathe carriage is 
then slowly moved towards the headstock. The 
proper speed to move the lathe carriage in dif- 
ferent classes of turning must be gained by ex- 
perience. If it is moved too fast it will have a 
tendency to cut a screw in the work. It is much 
better for the beginner to move the carriage a 
little slower than is necessary, gradually increas- 
ing the speed until it reaches the safe maximum. 
In this instance the mechanic must remember that 
the distance from the end of the pin to the shoul- 
der is about 3 inches. He should place his scale 
alongside of the revolving work and run the tool 
a distance of three inches. When the tool reaches 



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114 I+athe Work for Beginners 

this point the cross feed should be manipulated 
in a reverse direction so that the cutting edge of 
the tool will be withdrawn from the work. The 
lathe carriage is then slid back and another cut of 
1/16 of an inch is taken. These cuts are repeated 
several times until the mechanic feels that he is 
getting somewhere near the final diameter. He 
should then set his calipers to 17/32 of an inch and 
turn the work until this diameter is reached. The 
calipers should then beset to exactly y 2 inch. 
Then a very fine cut is taken. When the mechanic 
becomes proficient he will find that he is able to 
cut off 1/32 of an inch very accurately. The begin- 
ner, however, may have to take two extremely fine 
cuts to arrive at the final diameter. Certainly the 
beginner should take two fine cuts rather than 
risk spoiling the work by a single heavy one. It 
is well to remember that a piece that is oversize 
can always be turned down, but there is no remedy 
for a piece undersize. 

The roughing tool should now be replaced with 
a left hand facing tool. This facing tool is used 
to square up the shoulder on the pin since this 
cannot be done properly with the roughing tool 
owing to its circular cutting edge. The left hand 
facing tool cuts out this circular contour left by 
the roughing tool and trues the work up nicely. 



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A Lesson in Metal Turning 



115 



The facing tool is then replaced by the parting 
tool (see Fig. 85). One fourth of an inch is then 
measured off from the shoulder of the pin towasda 
the headstock and the point of the parting tool 
brought to this position. The lathe is then set in 
motion and the cross feed manipulated slowly 
until a very small amount of metal is left. When 
cutting between centers in this way it is not best 
to completely run the parting tool to the center 
of the work. When but a small amount of metal 




is 

Fig. 85. — The use of the parting tool. 

is left, the lathe is stopped, the back center taken 
out and the work broken off. When work is being 
turned in the chuck, however, the parting tool 
can run all the way through. 

Hand turning must be resorted to if the lathe 
is not provided with a slide-rest. Small bench 
lathes can be purchased with or without the slide 
rest. In cases where the price is not prohibitive, 
the worker is urged to equip the lathe with the 
slide-rest since much more accurate can be ac- 



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116 Lathe Work for Beginners 

complished with it. Then there is also to be con- 
sidered the fact that hand turning requires con- 
siderable experience, and even then it has its 
limitations. 

In hand turning, the tools are supported upon 
the tee-ijest, with the cutting edge in contact with 



Fig. 86. — The proper position for hand-turning. 

the work which is revolving in the lathe. The 
position for hand turning is shown in Fig. 86. 
Different shaped tools are employed for hand 
turning. The most common tools used are shown 
in Fig. 87. Many of these tools can be ground 
to shape from old files. Files are extremely hard 
and are very suitable for work of this nature. 
The tool should be as long as possible, thus in- 



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A Lesson in Metal Turning 117 

creasing its leverage and making its manipulation 
easier. When hand turning with steel, the worker 
should remember to grind a positive rake upon 
the tool. Just the reverse is true with brass. It 




Hook or Heel Tool 




Parting Tool 
Fig. 87. — Hand-turning tools. 

is especially dangerous to attempt hand turning 
on brass with a positive rake as the tool is apt 
to dig in and be pulled from the worker's hand 
if the machine is power driven. 



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118 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



In hand turning, the tee-rest should be placed 
as close as practical to the work. The exact posi- 
tion will depend upon the size of the job. Correct 
and incorrect positions are shown in Fig. 88. The 
tool shown in this illustration is the heel or hook 
tool. In turning iron or steel by hand plenty of 




Proper Mefhocf 



Fig. 88. — Correct and incorrect position for the hooked tool. 

lubricating oil should be applied. This is not 
necessary when working with brass. 

Inside turning can be done if the lathe is pro- 
vided with a chuck. The method of accomplish- 
ing this is illustrated in Fig. 89. Here a separate 
tool called an arm-rest is used to support the cut- 
ting tool. 

The lathe can be used as a drill press by plac- 
ing a drill chuck in the tailstock or headstock, 



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A Lesson in Meted Turning 



119 



depending upon the nature of the work to be done. 
The drill chuck, of course, must be provided with 
a Morse taper shank which will fit the tapers in 
the lathe. If the center of a round piece of work 



CZ^K 




Fig. 89. — Inside turning with hand tools. 



^ 




JTJi 



5 



Fig. 90. — A drill chuck for the tail-stock. 

is to drilled out, it can be placed in the regular 
lathe chuck while the drill chuck is placed in the 
tailstock as illustrated in Fig. 90. The tailstock 
is moved forward until the point of the tool 



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120 Lathe Work for Beginners 

touches the work. The lathe is then set in motion 
and the drill fed into the work by means of the 
hand wheel on the tailstock. 

Goodell-Pratt lathes are provided with a small 
drill pad. This drill pad is placed in the tail- 
stock. The chuck is placed in the headstock 
spindle and in this way a power driven drill press 
is available. Drilling on the lathe in this way is 
both convenient and rapid. 

In the event that a hole is to be drilled cross- 
wise through a round piece of stock, a small V- 




Fig. 91. — A V-center for the lathe. 

center is placed in the tail-stock spindle. This 
V-center is illustrated in Fig. 91. Such a center 
will hold the round stock in position and prevent 
it from turning while the drilling is being done. 
If the regular drill pad was used for this work 
it would be very difficult to drill through it with- 
out slipping to one side or the other. 

It might be well to give a few directions for 
drilling at this time. A drill, with the names of 
its various parts, is shown in Fig. 92. The cutting 
edge of a drill is always higher than the back 
edge. The difference in the height between these 



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A Lesson in Meted Turning 



121 



two edges is called the clearance. The best way 
for the mechanic to understand the clearance is 
to study new drills. These drills are ground at 
the shop where they are made and they are as 
nearly perfect as it is commercially possible to 
make them. 

In re-grinding a drill it is only necessary to 

/Back Edge 



Cutting' 
Edge 



Back— { 
Edge 




>Web 



.Xutfing 
Edge 

Mute 
Edge 

-Flute 



Fig. 92. — A metal drill and the names of its parts. 

grind its tips. The flute edges are never touched 
since this would reduce the diameter of the drill 
and cause it to drill undersize. It is necessary 
to use a grinding wheel to sharpen drills. The 
cutting edge of the drill is placed against the 
grinding wheel and, with a sweeping motion, the 



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122 Lathe Work for Beginners 

drill is moved upward and at the same time 
revolved so that the grinding wheel will touch the 
surface of one side. The same procedure is then 
followed out on the opposite side of the drill and 
care should be taken to see that the drill is held 
at the same angle in relation to the wheel each 




Fig. 93. — A drill-grinding gauge. 

time. If this is not done, one cutting edge of the 
drill will be higher than the other and the drill 
will have a tendency to produce a hole oversize. 
To drill accurately, both cutting edges should be 
ground at the same angle. On the larger drills a 
gauge is used to prevent one side from being 
ground higher than the other. Such a gauge and 
its use is shown in Fig. 93. 



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A Lesson in Metal Turning 123 

The worker is warned not to drill brass at high 
speed with a drill sharpened in the ordinary man- 
ner. If this is done the drill will have a tendency 
to "bite in" just as a lathe tool with a positive 
rake does. When a drill "bites in" in this way 
it invariably breaks. To prevent this, the lip or 
cutting edge of the drill is ground flat. Reference 
is made to Fig. 94 which shows how a drill for 
brass should be ground. 

In drilling steel, a lubricant should always be 





x Lip Ground Off' 
Pig. 94. — How a drill is ground for brass. 

used and the lathe should be run at a medium 
speed. The drill should never be forced. The 
feed should only be fast enough to accommodate 
the cutting power of the drill. When drilling with 
drills over y 2 inch in diameter on a bench lathe, 
the back gears should be thrown in, providing the 
lathe is equipped with them. 

Thread cutting can be done on a small bench 
lathe without a screw-cutting attachment by means 
of an ordinary die stock and die. This is illus- 
trated clearly in Fig. 95. The die is backed up 



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124 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



against the drill pad and in this way the threads 
are sure to be cut square and true. When cutting 




Fig. 95. — Cutting threads on a small bench lathe. 

threads by this method it is best to pull the belt 
around by hand since the power drive would be 




Fig. 96. — A disc grinder for use on a small lathe. 

much too fast. When steel is being threaded 
plenty of lubricating oil is necessary. 



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A Lesson in Metal Turning 125 

A very convenient attachment for a small lathe 
is depicted in Fig. 96. This is a small wooden disc 
covered with emery or carborundum cloth. The 
disc is secured to the slotted face plate by means 
of wood screws as shown. The table rest is 
brought up to within about y s inch of the revolv- 
ing disc. By the aid of this disc many jobs can 




Fig. 97. — A small compression chuck and its use, 

be done. The author has found this little device 
practically indispensable in his shop. With it, 
flat surfaces can be polished, pieces squared up, 
etc. It is equally as useful in woodworking and 
pattern-making as in metal work. It is a very 
good substitute for a file and produces more 
accurate results. 

The little compression chuck illustrated in Fig. 
97 can be used in many cases in connection with 



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126 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



a Goodell-Pratt lathe. By the aid of this little 
chuck, which is provided with different sized bush- 




Fig. 98. — Dimensions of a bushing to be made by the use of a 
compression chuck. 

ings, a long piece of stock can be fed through the 

center of the live spindle. If bushings were to 

> be made according to the dimensions illustrated in 




Fig. 99. — Using a small lathe as a grinding head. 

Fig. 98, it would only be necessary to place the 
proper sized drill in the tailstock and drill the 
center out. The bushing could then be cut off y 2 
inch long and another one cut in the same way. 



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A Lesson in Metal Turning 127 

When a number of such bushings are to made 
the work is greatly facilitated by the use of this 
chuck. 

The Goodell-Pratt lathe is also provided with 
a small circular saw or emery wheel arbor. This 
is placed in the live center and has a shank pro- 
vided with a Morse taper. The use of this device 
as a grinding wheel is shown in Fig. 99. 



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CHAPTER VII 

ADVANCED LATHE WORK 

Use of Chuck — Mandrels — Boring — Boring Tools — Boring 
Bars — Boring Cylinders — Strapping Work to Lathe Car- 
riage — Face Plate — Eccentric Turning — Eccentric Mandrel 
— Angle Plate — Taper Turning — Use of Reamers. 

This Chapter will be devoted to more advanced 
lathe work and will include taper and eccentric 
turning, boring, etc. The beginner will find that 
he can use his lathe in a multitude of ways. 




Fig. 100. — A piece of small turning. 

A great amount of simple turning can be accom- 
plished with the ordinary chuck. If it was desired 
to turn a pin down as shown in Fig. 100, it could 
be easily chucked and turned as illustrated in 
Fig. 101. The beginner may wonder why it was 
not necessary to turn this piece between centers. 
If the piece had been longer it would have been 
necessary to do this. In the case of the stock 

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being longer than it is, it would spring when the 
tool was brought in contact with it. Turning of 
this nature can only be accomplished successfully 
when the stock is of the proper diameter and 
short enough. If a 14 inch piece of stock the same 
length as the piece shown in the chuck (Fig. 101) 
was being turned, it would spring when the tool 
was brought in contact with it. However, the 




Fig. 101. — The work mounted on the chuck. 

larger piece has enough body to overcome the cut- 
ting action of the tool. In all turning of this 
nature the beginner must use his own judgment. 

If the center of a small ring was to be turned 
out it could be mounted in the chuck and turned 
very easily as depicted in Fig. 102. The reader 
will understand, however, that it would not be 
possible to chuck a square piece of stock in a three 
jawed chuck even though the chuck is self-center- 



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130 Lathe Work for Beginners 

ing. However, it is possible to chuck a hexagonal 
piece of stock for turning. Lathe chucks of the 
type illustrated in Fig. 101, are provided with two 




Fig. 102. — How a ring is turned out. 

sets of jaws. One set is called the inside jaws. 
If a piece of brass tubing was to be cut and turned, 
it would be mounted in the chuck as illustrated in 




Fig. 103. — How brass tubing is mounted in a chuck. 

Fig. 103. The jaws of the chuck have steps. The 
tubing is placed over these steps and the jaws 
are expanded until they grip the tubing. Just 
enough pressure should be exerted on the interior 



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131 



of the tubing to hold it securely while turning. 
Otherwise the chuck will destroy its shape. The 
inside jaws are used for most ordinary work. The 
second set of jaws, which are called outside jaws, 
is used in cases where the work is too large to 
be held by the inside jaws. The outside jaws are 
just the reverse of the inside jaws so that work 
of a much larger diameter can be accommodated. 
In changing the chuck jaws it is necessary com- 






SSSsS^Ss 













Fig. 104.— A pulley to be turned on a mandrel. 

pletely to remove the one set of jaws and insert 
the other set. It will be found that the slots on 
the chuck are numbered 1, 2, 3. The correspond- 
ing numbers are placed on the jaws and each jaw 
must be placed in the proper slot. 

If a pulley similar to that sketched in Fig. 104, 
was to be turned, it would not be practical to 
mount this in the chuck and, owing to its shape, 
it could not be mounted between centers since 
there is no place where the lathe dog could grip 
it. On jobs similar to this, what is known as a 



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132 Lathe Work for Beginners 

mandrel is used. A mandrel is nothing more or 
less than a slightly tapering steel rod, hardened 
and ground and centered on each end. This is 
shown quite clearly in Fig. 105. The mandrel is 
inserted into the pulley and driven in tightly. 
The lathe dog is then placed upon the mandrel. 
It will be understood that the hole in the pulley 
must be the same size as the small end of the 
mandrel of which the taper is about .030 inch per 



Fig. 105. — The pulley mounted on a mandrel. 

foot. With the small pulley shown, a mandrel 
% inch in diameter would be sufficient. In such a 
case, a %-inch hole would be drilled through the 
center of the pulley. This could be done on the 
lathe with the pulley mounted in the chuck. Then 
a piece of %-inch drill rod slightly oversize (about 
.378) is forced into the %-inch hole. This can be 
done as sketched in Fig. 106. The mandrel can 
be removed in the same manner. 

The subject of boring will now be considered. 
By the process of boring is meant the turning out 



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133 



of a hole such as the bore of a cylinder. If the 
small cup shown in Fig. 107, was to bored out, 
the operation could be done with the lathe chuck 




Fig. 106. — How the pulley is forced onto the mandrel. 

and boring tool. The boring tool, of course, would 
be mounted as sketched in Fig. 108. In grinding 
the lathe tool for work of this nature, the begin- 




Fig. 107. — A cup to be turned out on the lathe. 

ner must be careful to see that he gets the proper 
clearance or the result shown in Fig. 109- A, will 
be produced. It will be seen that the ordinary 
boring tool has a very limited application and can 



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Lathe Work for Beginners 



only be used for a limited cut. If too long a cut 
is made, the tool will be apt to spring and produce 
an inaccurate result. In boring out long holes 




Fig. 108. — How the boring tool is mounted. 

it is therefore necessary to use what is known 
as a boring bar. The mechanic can easily make 
a boring bar which will be very useful in many dif - 






:-WA 




f, f 


W^vX 



A B 

Fig. 109. — Improper clearance on the boring tool. 

f erent ways. Fig. 109-B shows the proper way in 
which the point of a boring tool should be ground. 
The little boring bar illustrated in Fig. 110, can 
be used where it would be impossible to use the 



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135 



ordinary boring tool owing to its tendency to 
spring. Another type of boring bar is sketched 
in Fig. 111. This boring bar is driven between 
centers by means of a dog. The work which is 




Fig. 110. — A boring bar for short cuts. 

to be bored out must be strapped to the lathe 
carriage. An example of this kind of turning is 
illustrated in Fig. 112. In making a boring bar 
of this nature, the rod used should not be longer 
than necessary. The shorter it is the less tendency 



Tool- 




rSet-screw 
' Drifted fbrCenfer*. 




flandrel^ 

Fig. 111. — A large boring bar. 

it will have to twist when the cutting is being 
done. The tool which is held in place by a set 
screw must be made of tool steel and properly 
hardened. In using a boring bar a very slow 
speed is necessary if cast iron is being cut. The 



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136 Lathe Work for Beginners 

feed should also be light to prevent the bar from 
springing. 

It will be necessary for the beginner to use his 
own ingenuity in finding a means for fastening 
the work to be bored to the lathe carriage. It 
must be bolted down very carefully and securely 
so that it will not move under the strain of cutting. 




Fig. 112. — How work to be bored out is mounted on the lathe 

carriage. 

A good example of such mounting is illustrated in 
Fig. 113. Here a small carriage bolt was used, 
and it may be well to mention here that the worker 
should have on hand several dozen carriage bolts 
of different sizes and lengths. Thej can be used 
in a multitude of cases. 

The use of the face-plate will now be considered. 
A typical lathe face plate is sketched in Fig. 114. 
This is screwed onto the lathe nose in place of 



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the chuck. In placing the face-plate on the lathe 
nose, the threads on the nose should be inspected 
to see that there is no dirt on them since this would 



Wood Blocks 




Carriage Boffs- 
Fig. 113. — How carriage bolts are used in mounting work. 




Fig. 114.~The lathe face-plate. 

interfere with the proper setting of the plate. 
A sample of face plate turning will be seen by 
referring to the drawing Fig. 115. In such a case, 
a rather large pulley is to be faced off. It would be 
rather inconvenient to mount such a pulley on a 



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Lathe Work for Beginners 



mandrel and therefore the face-plate is resorted 
to. It is held to the face-plate with carriage bolts 
and small clamps which the mechanic can easily 




Fig. 115. — A pulley mounted on the lathe face-plate. 

Face Plate- 



i 




Fig. 116. — How a cylinder to be bored is mounted on the face-plate. 

make. Care must be taken to mount the pulley 
concentric with the face-plate. Otherwise it will 
not be possible to tighten it accurately. When 
one side of the pulley is faced off, it can be turned 
around and the other side faced. 



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139 



Another example of the use of the face-plate is 
shown in Fig. 116. Here a small cylinder is 
mounted on the face plate for boring. Small blocks 
are used in this instance with carriage bolts. It 
should be noticed that two small strips are placed 
between the cylinder and face-plate. This is done 
so that the boring tool can protrude to finish the 
cut and without coming in contact with the face- 




Fig. 117. — Showing the use of wooden blocks in mounting work. 

plate. A number of blocks of all sizes should be 
kept on hand since they can often be used. An 
instance of how a block cut from a piece of 2 X 4 
can be used is shown in Fig. 117. 

Eccentric turning (turning off center) can also 
be accomplished on the face-plate in certain in- 
stances as will be seen by referring to Fig. 118. 
A small eccentric is mounted on the face-plate by 



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140 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



means of a single bolt. It will- be seen that as far 
as the lathe is concerned this eccentric is being 
turned on its true center. The shaft upon which 




Fig. 118. — An eccentric mounted on a face-plate. 

it revolves, however, on the engine or other device 
on which it is to be used, is eccentric. 
While on the subject of eccentric turning it 




ip& 



Fig. 119. — An eccentric mandrel. 

may be well to mention another method which is 
equally successful. A small mandrel which is 
turned down eccentrically at one end is used (see 
Fig. 119). Of course it is much more troublesome 
to do turning in this way. In preparing the eccen- 



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trie mandrel for this kind of turning it is only 
necessary to turn it down off center on the lathe. 
Thus the piece is mounted off its true center. The 
distance will depend entirely upon the eccentricity 
of the piece that is to be turned upon the mandrel. 
In combination with what is known as an angle- 
plate, a multitude of different jobs can be done 
on the face plate. An angle-plate is just what its 




Fig. 120. — Facing off a split bearing with an angle-plate. 

name implies; a piece of iron with faces at right 
angles to each other. An angle-plate is mounted 
on the face-plate by means of bolts as will be seen 
in Fig. 120. The work in turn is mounted on top 
of the angle-plate. This is also done by means of 
bolts. In the case where a small split bearing is 
to be faced off, the bearing must be mounted so 
that the hole in it will be in line with the hole in 
the center of the face-plate. It would be danger- 



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Lathe Work jot Beginners 



ous to drive the face-plate by power or other 
method if some means was not provided counter- 
weight it. With all the weight on one side caused 
by the angle-plate, a great vibration would be set 



^EEHHI 




Fig. 121. — An adjustable counter-weight. 




Fig. 122. — An elbow mounted on an angle-plate. 

up and a great strain imposed upon the lathe. 
If nothing more serious happened, it would be 
impossible to do good turning with the lathe 
vibrating. To overcome this difficulty a counter- 
weight is mounted on the opposite side of the face- 



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plate. This counterweight must be of the proper 
size. The writer has used an adjustable counter- 
weight. The method of making this will be seen 
by referring to Fig. 121. By the proper selection 
of weights, a combination can be found that will 
properly counterweight almost any job. 

Another instance where an angle-plate could be 
used will be seen by examining Fig. 122. In this 




Fig. 123. — Turning circular plates of thin sheet metal. 

case a small elbow is to be faced off. Here, too, 
the hole in the elbow must be placed on a line with 
the hole in the face plate of the lathe. 

If circular plates of thin sheet metal are to be 
turned out, the kink shown in Fig. 123, will be 
very useful. In fact, this is the most practical 
method of accomplishing the job. A wooden disc 
is bolted to the surface-plate. On to this, the sheet 
metal to be cut is held with wood screws. The 



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Lathe Work for Beginners 



wooden disc should be at least 1 inch thick so that 
the wood screws which hold the metal to its sur- 
face can be long enough. If too short screws were 
used the metal sheet would be apt to fly loose from 
the disc and injure the operator. Care should be 
taken to. see that the sheet metal is mounted as 
near the center as possible. A right hand facing 




Fig. 124. — Showing the use of a large reamer. 

tool can be used to cut sheet metal held in this 
way. 

When using a large reamer, it is held in the 
same way shown invFig. 124. A reamer should 
never be mounted in the chuck but should always 
be used in the way explained. The reamer should 
be free to follow the hole being reamed. This 
prevents it from being held securely. A cut over 
l/64th of an inch should never be taken with a 



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Advanced Lathe Work 145 

reamer. It will be understood that reamers are 
used only in cases where a perfect fit is desired 
such as for the bearings, A drill l/64th of an inch 
under the size of the reamer should be used to drill 
the hole. 



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CHAPTER VIII 

SCREW CUTTING 

Use of Hand Chasers — Inside and Outside Chasers — Use of 
Screw Cutting Lathe — Change Gears — Thread Cutting 
Tools — Inside Tool — Outside Tool — Use of Lubricants. 

Screw cutting is one of the most important and 
useful processes carried out on the lathe. It dif- 
fers greatly from ordinary lathe work and the 
beginner will find that it requires considerable 
experience to produce accurate threads. 



Fig. 125. — A chaser used in cutting threads by hand. 

Screw cutting can be done on a simple lathe 
without a lead screw or other screw cutting attach- 
ments. It is then accomplished by the aid of what 
is known as a hand chaser. A hand chaser is 
sketched in Fig. 125. Thread cutting chasers are 
made of tool steel properly hardened and tem- 
pered. The cutting teeth in the end of the chaser 
correspond with the thread to be cut. If a No. 32 
thread is to be cut, the teeth in the end of the 

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Screw Cutting 



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chaser should be 1/32 inch apart, or if a No. 8 
thread is to be cut there should be 8 teeth in the 
end of the chaser. Chasers can be purchased for 
cutting all of the standard threads. 
The United States Standard thread is the f avor- 




Fig. 126. — Finding the pitch of a screw without a thread gauge. 

ite in this country and is therefore the most 
widely used. The pitch of a screw, or the number 
of threads that it has per inch, can be very readily 
found by placing a scale alongside the thread as 




Fig. 127. — How a thread is cut by the use of hand chasers. 

illustrated in Fig. 126. In the case illustrated the 
thread has % inch pitch or, in the other words, 
there are 8 threads to the inch. 

The use of the simple hand chaser in cutting 
threads between centers can be seen by referring 



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148 Lathe Work for Beginners 

to Fig. 127. The work to be threaded is mounted 
between centers in the usual way, care being taken 
to see that absolutely no play is allowed. Before 
the threads are cut the work is set in motion and 
a file is brought in contact with the edge which is 
rounded off. This is absolutely essential in cut- 
ting threads by this method. Having rounded off 
the work, the tee-rest is brought to about the cen- 




Fig. 128. — The proper position of a hand chaser in cutting threads. 

ter of the work. The chaser is slightly tilted so as 
to bring the cutting teeth in the position shown in 
Fig. 128. The worker must not think that all that 
is necessary is to press the teeth against the work. 
This would do nothing more than cut a series of 
grooves. At the time the chaser is brought in 
contact with the work, it must be slid toward the 
left hand along the work at a definite speed which 
will depend upon the pitch of the screw to be cut 
and also upon the speed at which the work is 



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Screw Cutting 149 

revolving. This is not exactly an easy job as the 
beginner will soon find out. It is understood that 
the speed at which the tool is slid along the work 
does not have to be absolutely correct since it 
would be quite impossible to achieve this accuracy 
by hand. However, it must be so nearly correct 
that the male and female threads will fit. The 
thread chaser should really be moved a distance 
of one tooth for each revolution of the work. The 
operator must take care to see that the motion is 
not jerky but is as uniform as possible. This is 
also true regarding the speed of the lathe. The 
first cut taken should be very light and the same 
care taken with it should be exercised with the 
first few cuts following until a fairly deep thread 
is cut. After this is done it will be easier to fol- 
low the thread without danger of spoiling it. The 
cutting should be continued until a well shaped 
V-groove results. 

It will be seen that there are no limitations to the 
diameter of the work that can be threaded with a 
hand chaser. The size of the work in no way 
changes the procedure. However, when cutting 
wrought iron or steel plenty of lubricating oil or 
soapy water should be applied. If a good thread 
is not started at the first cut, it is possible by 
skilful manipulation of the chaser to correct it. 



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Internal threads are cut in the same way with 
the tool illustrated in Fig. 129. When cutting 
internal threads, it is well to remember that the 
internal diameter of the work should be equivalent 
to the diameter at the bottom of the thread of the 
screw on which it is to be fitted. 

Threads may be produced on a screw-cutting 
lathe more easily than they can be cut with hand 
chasers unless the operator is particularly skil- 




Fig. 129. — The use of an internal chaser. 

ful in the use of this tool. It has been said before 
that if the cutting tool in the tool post can be 
caused to travel at a speed which has a definite 
relationship to the work revolving between the 
centers of the lathe, threads of a definite pitch 
can be cut, and that by changing the speed values 
of the moving members it will be possible to cut 
threads of practically ftny pitch. The definite 
relationship in speed between the spindle of the 
lathe and the lead screw is brought about through 



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Screw Cutting 151 

a train of gears with which motion from the live 
spindle of the lathe is transmitted to the lead 
screw causing it to revolve at a speed which will 
depend entirely upon the ratio of the gears in the 
train. The lathe carriage is caused to move by a 
half nut which has threads that fit those on the 
lead screw. In this way, the speed at which the 
carriage travels towards the head of the lathe will 
depend entirely upon the R.P.M. of the lead screw. 
Fine threads may be cut if the speed of the lead 
screw is low and the threads will become coarser 
as the speed of the lead screw is increased. If 
the lead screw is caused to travel too slowly, no 
threads at all will be produced. 

The operator must learn. to choose the proper 
gear ratios to cut various threads. Each screw 
cutting lathe is provided with a complete set of 
change gears so that the needed ratio can always 
be produced. The gear which fits on the live 
spindle of the lathe is held in place with a nut. 
The gear is also keyed to the spindle. The gear 
that is mounjted on the lead screw is held in the 
same manner. 1 The idling gear, which is placed 
between the gears on the spindle and lead screw, 
revolves upon a stud the position of which can be 
changed. This stud is clamped onto an arm which 
can be moved to any position so that the idler 



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152 Lathe Work for Beginners 

can be made to mesh with the two gears previously 
mentioned regardless of their diameter. This will 
be seen by referring to Fig. 130. Different lathe 
manufacturers employ different means for bring- 
ing aH the gears into mesh. The idling gear is 
always made adjustable in some manner so that 
this can be done. 

The idler does not need to bear any definite 




Fig. 130. — A gear train on a screw-cutting lathe. 

ratio to the other gears since it is merely used to 
transmit motion between the two. However, the 
gear on the live spindle and the gear on the lead 
screw must have a definite'ratio which will depend 
entirely upon the screw being cut. All screw-cut- 
ting lathes are provided with a little index plate 
similar to that shown in Fig. 131. This plate will 
show the operator the proper gears to use with- 



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Screw Cutting 



153 



out the necessity of making the calculation mathe- 
matically. The thread indicates the pitch. Thus 
if a thread with a pitch of 32 was to be cut, 32 
would first be found in the thread column to 
extreme left. Under the column headed " spindle' ' 
and opposite to 32, 16 will be found. This means 
that a gear with 16 teeth must be placed upon the 
live spindle of the machine. The figure opposite 
16 under the column headed " Screw' 9 is 64 and 
this means that a gear with 64 teeth must be placed 
upon the lead screw to obtain a screw with 32 
threads to the inch. 

EMPIRE LATHE CO. 



New York 








N. Y. 


Thread 


Spindle 


Screw 


Thread 


Spindle 


Screw 


4 


64 


32 


16 


32 


64 


5 


64 


40 


13 


32 


72 


6 


64 


48 


20 


32 


86 


7 


64 


56 


22 


16 


44 


8 


32 


32 


24 


16 


48 


9 


64 


72 


26 


16 


52 


10 


32 


40 


28 


16 


56 


11 


32 


44 


30 


16 


60 


11* 


32 


46 


32 


16 


64 


12 


32 


48 


38 


16 


72 


13 


32 


52 


40 


16 


80 


14 


32 


56 









Fig. 131. — A lathe index plate. 



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Having considered the gearing, attention will 
now be diverted to the thread-cutting tool. It is 
very important that the thread-cutting tool be 
properly ground and set in the correct position 
in the tool post. The thread-cutting tool must be 



/ 



60* 




Fig. 132. — How a thread-tool is ground. 

ground at exactly 60 degrees which corresponds 
to the United States Standard thread. The shape 
of a thread-cutting tool is sketched in Fig. 132. 
Such a tool is best ground by the aid of a little 
pocket gauge which will be seen by referring to 




^iiiiii.M.i.m.m 

Fig. 133. — A thread-tool gauge. 

Fig. 133. The use of this gauge is also shown in 
the illustration. The thread-cutting tool must be 
mounted in the tool post so that its upper edge 
comes exactly to the center of the stock being 
threaded. The mechanic must also see that the 
cutting tool is exactly at right angles to the work. 



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Screw Cutting 155 

This is best done by applying the thread-cutting 
gauge as illustrated in Fig. 134. 

The point of the thread-cutting tool is now 
brought to the end of the shaft the edge of which 
should have been previously rounded off slightly 
with a file. When the tool is brought to this posi- 
tion, the cross feed should be manipulated until 
the point of the tool will just touch the edge of the 




Fig. 134. — Showing the use of thread gauge. 

stock. At this moment, the half nut is clamped 
firmly to the lead screw. The first cut should be 
nothing but a deep scratch* which should extend 
as far as the thread is to be cut. When the end 
is reached, the cross-feed screw is manipulated so 
that the tool is drawn away from the work and, 
at this instant, the lathe is thrown into reverse 
by the shipper rod. Two or three turns of the 
cross-feed screw are sufficient to remove the cut- 
ting tool a safe distant from the work. When the 
tool reaches the opposite end of the work the lathe 
clutch is thrown into neutral and the tool fed in 
so that it will take a little deeper cut than the 



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156 Lathe Work for Beginners 

previous one. This operation is continued until 
the thread is completed. When cutting brass it 
will not be necessary to use any lubricant. How- 
ever, when mild steel is being threaded, plenty of 
lard oil should be applied. Cast-iron, like brass, 
can be threaded dry. 

The workman will understand that he can 
reduce the speed of his lathe by shif t- 
fcT\ ing the belt to a smaller pulley with- 
out affecting the pitch of the thread 
being cut, as long as the proper ratio 
between the live spindle and the lead 
screw is obtained. 

Internal threads can be cut on a 
£?* lathe by using a bent thread tool as 
Fig. 135. -An iu us trated in Fig. 135. The bent 

internal thread- thread to()1 ig grQxmd the game way as 
cutting tool. 

the ordinary thread tool for external 
work. Like the external tool, it is necessary to so 
mount the internal tool in the tool post that its 
cutting edge will come in contact with the work 
at the center. Otherwise an inaccurate thread 
will be produced. 



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CHAPTEE IX 

WOOD TURNING 

Wood Turning Lathe — Speeds— Mounting Work — Tools— Use 
of Various Tools — Sharpening Tools — Finishing Surfaces 
— Choice of Woods. 

The author would consider this book incomplete 
if he did not devote a chapter to the work of wood 
turning, which is one of the most useful processes 
that comes within the scope of the lathe. This 
Chapter, although it will set forth the funda- 
mentals of wood turning, will by no means be 
absolutely complete, for wood turning has many 
ramifications and considerable experience is neces- 
sary in order to become thorougly proficient. The 
best the author can hope to do here is to outline 
the essentials. 

Wood turning can be accomplished in the ordi- 
nary metal turning lathe when it is revolved at 
high speed. However, it is best done on a lathe 
specially designed for this purpose. A very good 
type of wood turning lathe is illustrated in Fig. 
136. This embodies certain features which make 
it most adaptable for work of this kind. 

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Lathe Work for Beginners 



The speed of a wood turning lathe should be 
adjustable between the limits of 1500 and 3000 
revolutions per minute. With speeds between 
these values it is possible to turn stock up to 




Fig. 136. — A good wood-turning lathe. 

3 inches in diameter. It must be remembered that 
pieces beyond this diameter cannot be revolved 
safely at such high speeds since the centrifugal 
force will be considerable and any irregularity in 



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Wood Turning 159 

the balance of the piece revolving between centers 
would be very apt to result in an accident. The 
beginner must remember that a piece of wood 
5 inches in diameter, revolving 3000 times per 
minute, would cause a bad injury to the operator, 
should it fly out of the lathe. Pieces beyond 3 
inches in diameter are best turned at speeds in 
the neighborhood of from 1800 to 2000 R.P.M. 
It will be understood that the surface velocity of 
a piece 6 inches in diameter will be twice as great 




Fig. 137. — A spur center for use on a wood-turning lathe. 



as that of a piece 3 inches in diameter. There- 
fore it is possible considerably to reduce the speed 
on the larger piece and obtain good cutting results. 
Wood is centered in much the same as was 
metal. In place of using the ordinary cone-shaped 
center in the head-stock spindle, what is known 
as a spur center is used. A spur center is sketched 
in Fig. 137. Another type of center known as a 
screw center is shown in Fig. 138. Both of these 
centers hold the end of the wood and in this way 
act in the place of a chuck. When a piece of wood 



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160 Lathe Work for Beginners 

is centered, it should be brought as near a balance 
as possible. If it is badly out of balance, the lathe 
should be run slowly until the cutting tool rounds 
it off sufficiently to bring it to a balance. The 
speed can then be safely increased. The writer 
warns beginners to heed the above directions, for 
serious injury may result when a piece of wood 
leaves the lathe while it is revolving at high speed. 
In centering a piece of wood the back center is 
always well oiled just as in metal turning. If this 




Fig. 138. — A screw center used in wood-turning. 

is not done the center will become red hot through 
friction and cause the wood to catch fire. This is 
not only likely to cause the wood to fly off the 
centers when the hole becomes burned, but it will 
also deprive the center of its hardness. 

A slide-rest is not used in wood turning. The 
tee-rest is all that is necessary and the cutting tool 
is rested upon this and manipulated with both 
hands as illustrated in Fig. 139. 

It is necessary to place the tee-rest about y$ 
inch from the wood to be turned. The tee-rest 



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Wood Turning 161 

must be readjusted as the turning proceeds and 
the stock is reduced in diameter. In readjusting 
the tee-rest it is always best to stop the lathe, 
since the stock is apt to be caught and pulled from 
the machine if this is not done. Before setting 
the lathe in motion the workman should see that 




Fig. 139. — The manipulation of a wood-turning tool. 

the tailstock is firmly clamped in position and 
that the binding screw which locks the tailstock 
is firmly clamped in position and that the bind- 
ing screw which locks the tailstock spindle is 
screwed down tight. 

The tools should be held firmly, but, on the other 
hand, they should not be gripped rigidly. The 
right hand must grasp the handle at the extreme 



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162 Lathe Work for Beginners 

end in order to produce as much leverage as pos- 
sible, which will prevent the tool from being drawn 
from the hands should it catch in the work. The 
left hand of the operator must be held somewhere 
near the end of the tool so that it can act as a 
guide to control the movement of the cutting edge. 
The operator must stand firmly on the floor just 
far enough from the lathe to allow the passing of 
the tool from right to left without changing posi- 
tion. The cutting movement of the tool should be 
brought about by the arms only and in no case 
should it be accompanied by a swinging of the 
body. 

Before going further it will be necessary to con- 
sider the cutting tools used in the process of wood 
turning. A complete set of cutting tools is shown 
in Fig. 140. It will be noticed that there are eight 
different kinds of tools used in ordinary work. 
These are the skew, round point, square point, 
right skew, left skew, parting tool, spear point 
and gouge. Each tool must be used in the proper 
place if good results are to be had. The writer 
knows of many mechanics who prefer to use one 
type of tool only. This is wrong, and the begin- 
ner should habituate himself to the use of the 
different tools in place of becoming accustomed 
only to one. 



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Wood Turning 



163 



The skew chisel is one of the most-used cutting 
tools in wood turning. Its cutting edge should 
have an angle of about 20 degrees with the 



^ 



(L 



^ 



^ 



/L 



^ 



<E 



<<Z 



^s: 



c 



c 



Skew 



Pound Point 



Square Point 



Right5kew~ 



Left Skew 



Parting Tooi 



5pearPoint 



Gouge 
Fig. 140. — A set of wood-turning tools. 

opposite edge. Since the skew is used to cut in 
both directions, it must be beveled on both sides. 
The wheel used in grinding the bevel should have 



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164 Lathe Work for Beginners 

a diameter of about 5 inches so that it will leave 
the bevel hollow ground to a slight degree. When 
grinding the chisel, care should be taken to keep 
it cool so as not to destroy its hardness. The 
imperfect edge left by the grinding wheel must be 
taken off with a slip stone in the usual way. The 
tool is rubbed first on one side and then on the 
opposite side. The operator can test the chisel by 
running his thumb carefully along its edge. If any 
imperfections are present, the sensitive skin of 
the thumb will detect them. 

The gouge must be beveled on the outside and 
is ground in such a way that the nose is almost 
semi-circular in shape. The bevel must extend 
well around the ends. This is done to avoid 
abrupt corners. In making shearing cuts, the 
round nose of the gouge makes it possible for the 
tool to be rolled to the side in order to prevent 
scraping the wood. The sharpening of gouge is 
difficult work for a beginner. A gouge which has 
a square nose may be beveled by turning it half 
way around and back again. The sharpening of 
the gouge is finished with a slip stone in the usual 
manner. 

Parting tools for wood turning are sharpened 
on each side. These tools differ from ordinary 
chisels in that they are about % inch thick and 



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Wood Turning 165 

y s inch wide. The bevels should meet at the cen- 
ter and should have an angle of about 50 degrees. 

Scraping tools are much used. The square nose, 
the round nose, spear point, right skew and left 
skew have become known as scraping tools and 
they are used largely in pattern making and work 
on the face-plate. Such tools are sharpened on 
one edge and the bevel must be about twice the 
thickness of the chisel at the point where it is 
sharpened. Each tool must be slightly hollow 
ground to facilitate whetting. Since the edges of 
these tools come in contact with the work at right 
angles they become dull after a little use. 

Eoughing cuts in wood turning are always 
accomplished with a large gouge. The gouge is 
properly held so that the handle is a little lower 
than the tee-rest thereby producing a slight angle. 
The edge of the gouge is rolled slightly to the 
right so as to make it produce a shearing out in- 
stead of a scraping one. When the tool is mani- 
pulated in this way it also throws chips from the 
operator. The handle is lifted slightly which 
forces the cutting edge deep into the wood so that 
nearly all of the corners are removed at the first 
cut. Each cut should be about % inch in length, 
working back toward the live spindle until the 
entire length of the work is gone over. This par- 



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166 Lathe Work for Beginners 

ticular procedure is followed out in order to pre- 
vent slivers from being torn from the stock. The 
small gouge is used for scraping and for taking 
smaller cuts than can be taken with the large 
gouge. 

The skew chisel must be handled with care for 
it is the one tool that is most apt to dig into the 
work and pull itself from the operator's hand. It 
is laid on the rest at an angle of about 60 degrees 
in relation to the surface. The chisel is drawn 
back slowly and at the same time the handle is 
raised until the chisel starts to cut. In using the 
skew, the operator should never start at the end 
since there is danger that the chisel will catch and 
split the wood. It will be found that very smooth 
turning can be accomplished by the aid of the skew 
and all the imperfections that were left by the 
gouge can be removed. The parting tool is used 
to cut wood in two pieces. It is fed in with a 
slightly rocking motion until about half an inch 
of wood is left. The cutting should not be con- 
tinued until the wood is completely severed as this 
would cause it to fly from the lathe. When the 
tool has proceeded as far as it can safely go, the 
lathe is stopped and the final cut is taken with 
a saw or the lathe can be reduced in speed and 
the final cut done in this way. 



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Wood Turning 167 

A piece of wood can be nicely finished in the 
lathe by holding a piece of very fine-grit sand 
paper to the surface. 

If semi-circular grooves are to be cut in a piece 
of wood the gouge chisels are always used. It is 
a very simple matter to effect cuts of this nature 
with these tools. If these cuts are to be placed 
certain distances apart, as in the turning of a ped- 
estal, a ruler is placed along the tee-rest and the 
piece is marked off the proper distance by a lead 
pencil while it is in motion. The lines marked 
upon the surface will then act as guides in mak- 
ing the cuts. 

By the use of the tools heretofore described, 
all ordinary turning can be accomplished. As the 
mechanic becomes more experienced in the manip- 
ulation of these tools he will find that by their 
intelligent use any desired shape can be formed. 

Close-grained woods should be used whenever 
possible in turning. Such woods not only take a 
finer finish but can be turned much more easily 
and with less danger of splitting. Maple is a very 
satisfactory wood to turn and a beautiful finish 
can be produced. Where open-grained woods, 
such as oak, are used, it will be necessary to add 
a wood filler before the surface is in shape to 
receive a fine polish. 



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168 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



In the forerunning paragraphs only turning 
between the centers of the lathe was considered. 
At this point it will be well to take up the use of 
the face-plate in turning operations that cannot 
be accomplished in the manner heretofore de- 
scribed. 

The equipment of the wood turning lathe will 
include a face-plate such as that shown in Fig. 
141. The face-plate is small and in its center 




Fig. 141. — Face-plate for wood-turning. 

there is placed a single screw. To use this plate 
the center of the stock to be turned must first be 
found. The center is then marked and the mark 
is brought in contact with the screw. By applying 
some pressure and at the same time turning the 
piece it may be screwed on the face-plate. In 
doing this the operator must take care to see that 
the piece of wood to be turned comes in contact 
with the face-plate at all points. To insure this 
it will be necessary to screw the piece of work up 



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Wood Turning 169 

tightly against the face-plate. If this is not done 
it will not run true, and accurate turning cannot 
be accomplished 

If in doing work of this nature it is found that 
the piece being turned works loose, a remedy can 
be applied by inserting a piece of sand paper with 
the grit side out between the face-plate and the 
stock In fact if this is done when the stock is 
first put in plane there will be less danger of it 
coming loose during the turning operations. 

It will be understood that pieces of different 
shape can be screwed to the face-plate in this man- 
ner. It is not absolutely necessary that round 
pieces only to be used. However, in mounting 
irregularly shaped pieces in this way, the mechanic 
must take care not to give his lathe too great a 
speed or an accident is apt to happen. 

Oftentimes a properly shaped piece of wood for 
a certain piece of turning is not available from 
the stock at hand. If the mechanic meets this con- 
dition it is well for him to remember that a piece 
of proper size and shape can be built by gluing 
several smaller pieces together. It is quite neces- 
sary, however, that the pieces be glued together 
properly, for they will be subjected to great strain 
in the lathe under the action of the cutting tool, 
and if they are not glued together firmly, they will 



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170 Lathe Work for Beginners 

come apart and fly out of the lathe. Good carpen- 
ter 's glue should be used in gluing the pieces 
together and only a very thin layer is applied. 
The contacting surfaces should be planed off as 
accurately as possible and after the glue is applied 
the work should be placed in a clamp or vise to 
hold it tightly together until the glue has dried. 
Many mechanics have the idea that the more glue 
they apply the better the pieces will hold. Just 
the opposite is true. The glue should be applied 
in as thin a layer as possible and the entire sur- 
face should be covered. 

When working on the face of a flat piece of 
wood mounted on the face-plate the tee-rest is 
placed parallel to the face of the wood. When the 
edge of the wood is being worked upon, the tee- 
rest is placed in its normal position. 

When using the parting tool or when boring out 
the center of a piece, the tool should be withdrawn 
occasionally to take out the chips and to allow the 
tool to cool off. When the parting tool is forced 
into the work there is a tendency for it to heat 
up since it is pinched tightly and a great amount 
of friction is developed. When the tools become 
overheated they lose their temper and they can- 
not be kept in a sharpened condition since the 
cutting edge has no qualities. 



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Wood Turning 171 

Concave cuts will give the worker considerable 
trouble trouble at first, since the grind which 
forms the cutting edge and which must be held 
perpendicular to the work at the start, is on the 
under side of the tool and cannot be seen. As soon 
as the correct angle of the tool is located, this 
type of cut will be found as easy as any of the 
others. Concave cuts should be made with a me- 
dium size gouge, either the y 2 or % inch size being 
best suited for this work. It will be assumed that 
concave cuts are to be made in the cylinder revolv- 
ing between centers. The gouge is placed on the 
tee-rest with the cutting edge all above the wood. 
The tool is then rolled on its side so that the grind 
and the cutting point, which is on the lip of the 
gouge well below center, is perpendicular to the 
axis of the cylinder. The handle is then raised 
slowly to force the gouge into the wood. When 
the gouge has taken hold, the tool is forced for- 
ward and upward by a slight lowering of the 
handle, and at the same time, it is rolled slowly 
back towards its original position. In manipulat- 
ing the tool in this way, care should be t&ken not 
to roll the chisel too fast or an imperfect arc will 
be formed. By this triple action, the grind which 
comes in contact with the surfaces of the curve 
forces the lip sidewise and cuts % of a circle. In 



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172 Lathe Work for Beginners 

reversing the position of the gouge and cutting 
from the other side in the same manner, the other 
half of the semicircle is formed. The cutting 
should always stop at the base of the cut, since 
there is danger of the tool catching when cutting 
against the grain of the wood on the opposite side 
of the work. This operation is repeated until the 
work is within 1/16 inch of the required size. At 
the end of each cut the tr\>l should have been 
forced far enough forward and upward to bring 
the nose of the tool well out on the top of the cut. 
The depth of the concave is calipered in the usual 
manner. 

The worker must not forget that templates 
may be used to advantage in the art of wood turn- 
ing. This is especially true in duplicate turning. 
If a number of pieces of the same dimension are 
to be turned, it is well to make a template of thin 
sheet metal, since this will save a lot of measuring 
with calipers and ruler. 

A convex cut, or a bead, as it is sometimes called, 
is considered by wood turners the hardest cut to 
make. This particular kind of cut is made with 
the heel of a small skew chisel. If a cylinder is 
being turned, it should be marked out and all the 
stock between the beads roughed out with a part- 
ing tool. The shoulder cutting is done with an 



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Wood Turning 173 

ordinary parting tool. A pencil is used to mark 
the center of each bead to be made. The line is the 
starting point for all cutting. The chisel is placed 
on the tee-rest with the cutting edge above the 
cylinder, and the lower grind is placed tangent 
to it. The chisel is drawn back and the handle is 
raised to bring the heel of the chisel in contact 
with the cylinder at the line indicating the center 
of the bead. The chisel is then moved to the right, 
and at the same time, it is tipped repeatedly to 
keep the lower grind tangent to the revolving 
cylinder, and also to the bead at the point of con- 
tact. This cut is carried until the bottom of thv 
bead is reached. When turning a series of beads 
it is well to work the same side of all before re- 
versing to the other side. 

With the directions outlined in the foregoing 
paragraphs, the amateur woodworker will now be 
in a position to try his skill at such simple little 
articles as tool handles, gavels, rolling pins, lamp 
pedestals, candle sticks, Indian clubs, etc. 

It might be well at this point to add a word 
about the finishing of articles turned on the lathe. 
The final polishing, of course, is best done while 
the work is still revolving between centers after 
all the cutting has been done. The final cut is made 
as fine as possible, and the tool should be moved 



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174 Lathe Work for Beginners 

very slowly along the surface of the work so that 
there will be no ridges left to be removed by the 
sand paper. In polishing a wooden cylinder, for in- 
stance, sand paper should be cut in strips, one 
of the strips wound tightly around the cylinder, 
and the lathe set in motion. By pulling on the 
sand paper and working it back and forth over 
the surface, a very beautiful finish will be made. 
It is often desirable to apply stain, varnish, or 
shellac to the finished article while it is still 
mounted between the centers of the lathe or on 
the face-plate. When this is done, however, the 
should be sure to remove all traces of dust left on 
the wood by the sand paper. Otherwise these fine 
particles of wood will mar the finish, and it may be 
necessary to paper it off and apply a fresh coat. 
The woodworker should not forget to take good 
care of his lathe, since nothing will ruin it more 
quickly than lack of attention. If the lathe is used 
daily, it should be oiled daily, and if it is used less 
frequently it should be oiled every time it is used. 
The oil holes should be kept covered up to pre- 
vent dust and dirt from getting into the bearings. 
The ways of the lathe should be kept well oiled, 
and the mechanic should refrain from laying his 
cutting tolls across the lathe bed. The tools should 
be kept on a little table beside the lathe, or they 



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Wood Turning 175 

may be placed in a holder directly back of the lathe 
where they will be within reach of the worker. 
After a cutting job is finished the lathe should be 
brushed off and then carefully wiped with an oily 
rag. All the tools should be wiped clean and put in 
their proper places. A lathe should run quietly 
and smoothly, and if any peculiar noise develops 
while it is in operation, the operator should im- 
mediately trace it down, and the first place he 
should look for such trouble is in the bearings. 
An oiless bearing or a badly worn or ground bear- 
ing will be somewhat noisy in operation, and there 
will be little trouble in finding it. If a bearing is 
badly worn it will be necessary to take it to a 
shop and have it rebabbitted. It is impossible to 
do accurate turning on a lathe with a worn bear- 
ing. If the counter-shaft is used in connection 
with the lathe this should also be oiled oc- 
casionally, and it is well to warn the worker that 
the bearings of the counter-shaft should be ex- 
amined and oiled only when the driving motor is 
not in operation, since the fingers are apt to slip 
and be caught in the pulleys or in the belt, which 
would mean the loss of several fingers or perhaps 
the whole hand. 



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CHAPTEE X 

METAL SPINNING 

Lathe for Metal Spinnings— Tee-Rests — Tools — Use of Various 
Tools — Metals — Annealing — Use of Forms — Centers 
— Sample Turning — Mounting Work — Speeds. 

Everyone owning a lathe should know how to 
use the device for metal spinning. Metal spinning 
is an old and useful art and was practiced exten- 
sively before the advent of the modern stamping 
press, which, £t one stroke, is capable of producing 
a piece of work that would require considerable 
time to be done by the process of spinning. How- 
ever, the stamping press must be provided with 
expensive dies, and unless a great number of 
pieces are to be stamped out it is a costly process. 
For one or a few pieces metal spinning is very 
satisfactory and can be practiced by anyone in 
possession of a substantial lathe capable of re- 
volving at speeds between 600 and 1600 R.P.M. 

The ordinary lathe will serve this purpose and 
only a few simple additions are needed to adapt it 
to the spinning of metal. One of these additions 
is a T-rest provided with fulcrum pins as illus- 

176 



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Metal Spinning 



177 



trated in Fig. 142. The mechanic can very easily 
make such a T-rest for use on his own lathe. An- 
other addition which is quite necessary to complete 
the spinning attachment is a revolving back- 
center. Such a back-center is illustrated in Fig. 
143, and it will be seen that it consists of three 
parts. The nose of the tool is free to revolve upon 
a pin, the opposite end of which has a Morse taper 



Fvfcrvm P/h—-*> 



«D <ed «^ o «q (o ^u ,££> do 



P" 



Fig. 142. — A tee-rest with fulcrum pins used in metal spinning. 

which will fit the back spindle of the lathe used. 
Interposed between the stationary member and 
the nose of the tool is a hard rubber bushing which 
is securely -fixed in place by being forced over the 
stationary pin. Centers of this nature are difficult 
to produce, but with the directions given and by 
the aid of the drawing (Fig. 143) the mechanic 
should have no trouble in turning up such a tool 
on his own lathe. The bearing surfaces between 
the nose of the tool and the pin should be kept well 



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178 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



lubricated in order to prevent undue friction when 
the device is in use. 

There are certain metals that can be spun very 
easily. Some metals are very difficult to handle. 
Of course, metal spinning is done only with sheet 
metal ranging from Nos. 22 to 26 gauge, Brown 
& Sharpe. The No. 26 gauge is used for the 
larger work. No. 22 gauge in brass or zinc is very 
popular for small work varying in diameter from 
2^2 to 5 inches. Of course, metals of less thickness 




Fig. 143. — A revolving back-center for use in metal spinning. 

are much more easily spun than the thicker ma- 
terial. It is best to use the thickest material that 
can be handled by the operator. This not only pro- 
duces a more substantial piece of work but also 
lessens the danger of the spinning tool wearing 
through during the operation. 

Copper is recommended for beginners. It is 
much more easily spun than any other metal. It 
possesses toughness and when it has been properly 
treated with heat it is very pliable. It must be 
understood that metal hardens as it is being spun, 



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Metal Spinning 



179 



and it is often necessary to anneal it several times 
before the job is finished. Copper adapts itself 
to this treatment much better than most, of the 
other metals. This heat treatment can be carried 
out in a small annealing furnace, or, in case this 



C 



3C 



X 



Round Nose 




Raising-up Tool 
Fig. 144. — A set of metal-spinning tools. 



is not at hand, it can be done over a Bunsen 
burner or a blow torch. Copper should be heated 
until it is red hot and in this condition it is thrust 
into a pail of cold water. It will be found to be 
annealed after this process. 

Before going further with the instructions for 



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180 Lathe Work for Beginners 

metal spinning, the use of the various tools and 
materials will be described. An ordinary set of 
metal spinning tools is shown in Fig. 144. 

The round-nose tool is used in starting to spin 
a piece. It is especially useful in compressing 
metal into cavities and removing wrinkles before 
taking the work out of the lathe. 

The raising-up tool is used in operations that 
require considerable force to be applied. It is used 
in forming concave bottoms in dishes and other 
operations that require surfaces to be spun con- 
cave instead of convex. 

The planisher is a tool that is used a good deal. | 
It is really used as a burnisher or finishing tool. 
It is brought into use after all other tools have 
been used to finish the forming. 

The tongue tool is used principally in producing 
convex surfaces. It is manipulated in the same 
way as the rest of the tools. 

The groover is rather a special tool and is used 
only when grooves are to be pressed into the work. 
It is used .almost entirely in spindle forms for the 
production of small grooves. 

It will be asumed that the copper cup illustrated 
in Fig. 145 is to be spun. The first thing that the 
workman must determine is the size of the disc 
from which the cup is to be made. It is best to 



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Metal Spinning 



181 



have this too large rather than too small. If the 
disc is oversize it can be cut off, but if it is under- 
size the work must be done over again. 




Pig. 145. — A copper cup to be spun. 

After the disc is ciit, it is mounted as sketched 
in Fig. 146. It will be seen that it is necessary to 
turn a wood block to correspond with the shape 



Copper Di$c * 

Wooden Form* 




Fig. 146. — The copper disc mounted on the wooden block or form 
to make the copper cup shown in Fig. 145. 

of the copper cup which is to be spun. The ordi- 
nary center-screw face-plate used in wood turning 
is also used in metal spinning. The form upon 
which metal is to be spun is screwed upon the face- 



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182 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



plate in the manner shown in Fig. 147. The center 
of the metal disc which is to be spun is placed 




Fig. 147. — The form mounted on the face-plate. 

upon the end of the metal form and the tailstock 
of the lathe moved forward until the revolving 
center comes to rest upon the surface of the copper 




Fig. 148. — Showing the position of the copper disc on the lathe 9 
ready for spinning 

disc. Eef erence is made to Fig. 148, which shows 
just how the disc is clamped between the revolving 
center and the wooden form over which it is to be 
spun. 



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Metal Spinning 183 

It is quite necessary to keep metal well greased 
while it is being spun. After each annealing proc- 
ess, the supply of lubricant on the surface of the 
metal is replenished and at any other time it be- 
comes dry through excessive friction caused by the 
tools. Soft soap has been found to be a very satis- 
factory lubricant for copper. 

The spinning tool is held in the right hand and 
the handle should come under the right arm just 
above the elbow. In the left hand, the end of a 
broom handle or a piece of hard wood of similar 
shape is held in a way so that it presses firmly 
against the metal on the side opposite the point 
where the end of the tool comes in contact. If this 
is not done the metal Tvill have a tendency to 
buckle. As the spinning progresses and the copper 
disc starts to cover the form block, the broom 
handle can be dispensed with. It will be necessary 
for the beginner to use considerable patience on 
his first job. Metal spinning is largely a matter 
of experience since it does not require any great 
amount of intelligence to grasp the few funda- 
mentals of the process. 

After the disc has been spun tightly about the 
form block, the parting tool is used to finish off 
the rough edge which is left. If the edge overlaps 
too much a piece of the proper length is cut off. 



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184 Lathe Work for Beginners 

The workman must remember to anneal the 
piece as it becomes hard during the process of 
spinning. For ordinary work it is quite necessary 
to repeat the annealing process several times be- 
fore the final shape is brought about. 

The spinning can be done by holding the tool 
above the center of the lathe. The movement of 
the body will be downward and to the right which 
will result in the tool point working upward. 

After the spinning is done and the rough edge 
of the piece turned off, the polishing should be 
finished before the piece is taken from the lathe. 
To accomplish the polishing it is only necessary to 
wind a piece of fine emery cloth around the cup 
once and to hold it tightly with the hand while the 
lathe is revolving. 

\Brass is a very commonly used metal for spin- 
ning, and, although not as easy to work with as 
copper it is recommended for the beginner. The 
annealing of brass is carried out in the same way 
as the annealing of copper ; that is, it is heated and 
plunged into cold water. The reader will note 
that these two metals are annealed in the same 
way that steel is hardened. This is a property 
peculiar to brass and copper. 

Under the action of the spinning tool, brass is 
found to harden more rapidly than copper. There- 



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Metal Spinning 185 

fore it will be necessary to anneal it more fre- 
quently. The mechanic should make it a point to 
use a sheet brass as thin as possible for the work 
on hand. 

Zinc can be spun but it is a little more difficult 
to manipulate than either brass or copper. Be- 
fore annealing zinc it is best first' to immerse it 
in a bath of oil. Experienced metal spinners claim 
that this tends to soften the metal. The same 
procedure is often recommended for brass and 
copper also. Zinc is a metal which has a crystal- 
line structure and the action of the spinning tool 
tends to make it more crystalline. As the process 
is continued the zinc is weakened considerably. 
This is especially true where the zinc must be 
turned over abrupt corners. 

In annealing zinc it is advisable not to carry it 
over a temperature of 400 degrees. The tempera- 
ture may be determined with a chemical ther- 
mometer. The metal is plunged into cold water 
the same way as brass or copper. 

Aluminum can be spun and it has been found 
that the process of annealing is not quite so neces- 
sary with this metal as with the other metal men- 
tioned. Whether or not annealing helps in the 
case of aluminum is a matter of opinion. Alumi- 
num is easily worked, but on the other hand it is 



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186 Lathe Work for Beginners 

also easily shattered. Often the operator will 
carry the spinning of a piece of aluminum to a 
certain point and find that it suddenly shatters, 
not only spoiling the work but wasting the time 
that has been spent upon it. 

The beginner should not attempt to spin pieces 
with too large a diameter since the centrifugal 
force present will make the job difficult. The 
danger of the piece flying from the lathe will be 
increased with the increase in diameter. 

The beginner must keep in mind the fact that 
the spinning of shallow dishes and trays is the 
easiest to do, therefore it is advisable to start out 
with some simple little tray which will require 
only the use of a simple wooden form, dispensing 
with what is known as the follow-up block. A tray 
or a dish with a depression of from one to one 
and one-half inches with a diameter of six inches 
makes a comparatively easy job which comes with- 
in the range of the amateur worker. 

In the production of such an article simplicity 
of design should be adhered to. The beginner 
should not try to produce sharp corners since it 
requires the skillful manipulation of a seasoned 
spinner to produce these perfectly. The beginner 
must be satisfied with simple curves and contours. 
A little ash tray about five inches in, diameter and 



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Metal Spinning 187 

one inch deep with a simple round edge makes a 
good project to start with. 

Some experience in wood turning will be neces- 
sary in order to turn up the form block over which 
the metal is to be spun. The reader is referred 
to Chapter IX which will acquaint him with the 
fundamentals of wood turning. The wooden form 
blocks are turned to the exact shape that the 
finished article is to be. They must be perfectly 
hard and smooth and it is best to sandpaper them 
down carefully after they have been turned down 
on the lathe. Good hard maple, free from knots 
and well sandpapered, makes a very desirable 
form for nice spinning. It might be well to men- 
tion here that where a number of things of the 
same size and dimensions, are to be spun it might 
pay the worker to have a cast-iron block made, for 
a wooden block will not hold up for more than 
one or two articles. 

When the metal disc for an ash tray has been 
cut it is centered in the lathe with the form over 
which i{ is to be spun. Since it is necessary to 
keep the metal well greased while spinning it is 
advisable to apply some lubricant to the surface 
before the piece is centered. Due to considerable 
heating, the metal being spun becomes dry during 
the operation and the lathe must be stopped and 



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188 Lathe Work for Beginners 

the supply of lubricant replenished. For copper 
soft soap will be found very good. Brass and 
zinc require a rub from a tallow candle. A good 
heavy lubricating oil is suitable for white metal 
and aluminum since this prevents the spinning 
tool from cutting into the metal. 

Work is started as follows : In the right hand, 
with the handle under the right arm above the 
elbow, is held the spinner's tool and in the left 
hand the end of a broom handle or some similar 
piece of wood is held. This is so arranged that it 
is possible to press the metal firmly against the 
form block and the end of the piece of wood held 
in the left hand is kept opposite the end of the 
tool as it moves from the center of revolution out- 
ward and downward. -The turning of the lathe 
draws the tool down so that it is nearer the axis 
of the disc and a little lower than the end of the 
wooden support held in the left hand. The body 
of the worker throws the handle to the right which 
causes the end of the tool to pass to the left and 
consequently over the metal gradually toward and 
firmly against the form block. The diamond- 
pointed cutting tool is then brought into play to 
trim off the edge and the piece is complete. 

With a simple piece of turning of this nature 
it is not always necessary to anneal the work dur- 



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Metal Spinning 189 

ing the process unless it is found that the metal 
becomes unduly hard and fails to respond prop- 
erly to the spinning tool. If a piece is allowed to 
become hard and it is not annealed the work will 
surely be shattered before it is finished. 

In spinning a simple piece of work such as that 
just described no trouble should be experienced in 
keeping the metal at a uniform thickness. In 
other work, however, the beginner will find it dif- 
ficult to do this. 

While the dish is still on the form it can be 
papered down roughly to take out the blemishes 
left by the spinning tool. A good medium grade 
of emery paper will be suitable for this purpose. 

The turning of a deeper article is not carried 
out as easily as the turning of the simple little 
dish previously described. It will be assumed that 
a cup similar to that shown in Fig. 149, is to be 
turned. Here it will be necessary to employ what 
is known as a following-up form. This sort of 
turning is a little more difficult than that pre- 
viously described and the beginner must take great 
care to see that the metal is well annealed several 
times during the process to insure against shat- 
tering. The following-up form is made of maple 
and it is unnecessary to use it during the first of 
the spinning. The metal is spun until it is well 



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190 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



along, probably one-third way up the form. At 
this time the following-up form is placed over the 
tailstock center. It will, of course, be necessary 
to provide the following-up form with a hole into 
which the center will fit. When the following-up 




Fig. 149. — A more elaborate cup, and follow-up block. 

form is in place it will tend to support the metal 
and hold it tightly as shown in Fig. 149. 

A very simple revolving center designed to re- 
place the one previously described in this Chapter, 
is shown in Fig. 150. This is a very simple type 
and well adapted to metal spinning. A ball bear- 



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Metal Spinning 191 

• 

ing is used between the revolving part and the 
stationary part. This is supplied with oil through 
a hole in thp stationary part. 

The speed used in spinning the different metals 
will now be given some consideration. Sheet iron, 
one thirty-second of an inch thick is a metal that 
is sometimes used in spinning and it is best to 
run this at a speed of six hundred revolutions per 




Ba/t ' Beer ring J 
Pig. 150. — A simple revolving center. 

minute. When thicker iron is used the speed 
should be cut down to four hundred revolutions a 
minute and this holds generally true of all metals ; 
the thicker the metal is the lower the speed should 
be. Zinc spins very well at 1200 revolutions per 
minute and copper, brass and aluminum seem to 
work well at speeds between 800 and 1000 revolu- 
tions per minute. 



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CHAPTER XI 
BUILDING AN AMATEUR'S METAL TURNING LATHE 

General Description of Lathe — Lathe Bed — Patterns — Castings 
— Machining — Assembling — Work Bench — Countershaft 
— Accessories — Jig Saw Attachment — Slide Rest — Grind- 
ing Table — Hand Filing Jig — Circular Saw Table. 

The building of a lathe sufficiently strong and 
true for metal turning is a problem which many 
amateurs have attempted to solve. The accuracy 
of a lathe depends largely upon the truth of the 
machine upon which it is made, and this accuracy 
is again reflected in the work subsequently turned 
out. In the ordinary way, the construction of even 
a small lathe involves the use of heavy and ex- 
pensive machines such as planers and shapers. Of 
course, it is possible to make a fairly good lathe 
with a wooden bed and with the spindles simply 
drilled out, but for metal turning such a tool would 
not satisfy the model maker or careful mechanic. 

In the design shown in Fig. 151, the main fea- 
ture of the construction is the use of cold rolled 
steel shafting which is a commercial material of 
very reasonable accuracy and finish. The various 

192 



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Building an Amateur's Metal Turning Lathe 193 

additions to the final fittings of the lathe may be 
made on the lathe itself, once the basis of the work 
is finished. The lathe can be finally made up into 
a respectable screw-cutting machine by adding 
part by part as time goes on. At the outset, the 
boring table and lead screw need not be fitted. 
The only work that need be done outside is the 
turning down of the spindle to y 2 inch at each 
end, the casting of the cast-iron and brass por- 




Fig. 151. — A good amateur bench lathe. 

tions, and the drilling of the iy s inch holes in the 
headstock, tailstock, boring table and end sup- 
porting leg. The boring of the spindle to make it 
into a "hollow spindle lathe' ' may be left until 
the lathe is otherwise finished. Even the drilling 
of the cone pulley may be done on the lathe itself, 
a temporary or " jury" pulley being rigged up for 
the time being. 

The whole scheme of the lathe depends on the 
use of commercial cold-rolled or Bessemer steel 



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194 Lathe Work for Beginners 

rod for the bed of the lathe. This material is 
cheap, and is very true both in diameter and 
straightness. This fact is made use of to obtain 
a lathe without recourse to planing. 

The first thing is to prepare the patterns, which 
may be made by any amateur, since core-boxes 
can be dispensed with. The iy s inch holes may be 
bored out of the solid casting, the coring of the 
holes for the white metal being left to the foundry 
to provide. As a rule the foundry can supply all 
round cores. Should a three-step pulley wheel be 
determined upon at the outset, a pattern for this 
must be sent to the woodturners. However, it is 
quite possible that some firm will adopt the sug- 
gestion of supplying the necessary castings and 
parts already drilled, and thus make it possible 
for the amateur to accomplish the work of build- 
ing up the lathe with only the hand tools common 
to every home workshop. 

Assuming that the rough castings have come 
to hand, extreme care and accuracy will be re- 
quired in drilling the holes for the two shafts 
which will form the bed of the lathe. These holes 
should be 1% inches to fit the shafting, and a trial 
hole may be made in an odd piece of iron to test 
whether the drill in use will give a satisfactory 
result. The commercial bars should just go in the 



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Building an Amateur's Metal Turning Lathe 195 




.a 



2 



Jj 



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196 Lathe Work for Beginners 

holes, so that the set screw shown in the drawings 
of the head-stock will securely tighten up the parts 
and yet allow them to be removed at any time 
without trouble. 

The head-stock should be tackled first and, when 
drilled, this may be used to form a jig (see G 
Fig. 156) for drilling the second and all the other 
holes, a short piece of the bar being cut off for 
this purpose. The back foot or support for the 
bed of the lathe should be drilled next and, with 
the piece of rod inserted through the adjacenl 
holes, the second hole should be bored as shown in 
Fig. 156 at G. Next comes the tail-stock casting, 
and since the capacity of the average drilling 
machine and the length of the drill are not such 
as would take both the head-stock and tail-stock 
superposed on the drilling table, the back support 
may be utilized for this purpose. The idea is to 
insure that both the holes are equidistant since 
the success of the lathe depends on this. This, 
with the turning of the spindle bar down to y 2 inch 
diameter at each end, and the skimming up of its 
middle surface, is all the machining that need be 
given out. If a slide-rest is contemplated, then the 
boring table, Fig. 152, should be dealt with in a 
similar manner as the head-stock and at the same 
time. 



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Building an Amateur 9 s Metal Turning Lathe 197 

The main parts can then be threaded on the 
bed bar, which should be cut into equal portions, 
and the holes for the set screws securing the head- 
stock and back foot drilled and tapped. Ordinary 
screws may be used, and when the lathe is finished 
and running these may be removed and turned 
down with taper points, so that they tend to thrust 



WHlTEMpmL 




-TEMPLATE 



_ENO 
SUPPORT 



Fig. 153. — How the babbitting for the lathe bearings is done. 



the bed bars in an upward direction in tightening 
on them. 

The next process is to fit the spindle and poppet 
to the head and tail-stock castings truly parallel 
with the bed. By the devices and processes to be 
described, no machining is required for this work. 
While drilling out the two 1}/ S inch holes, two 
templates should be prepared out of 1/16 inch 
plate, as shown in Fig. 155. Three holes, two of 
iy s inch diameter and one of y 2 inch diameter, to 



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198 Lathe Work for Beginners 

correspond with the center of the spindle and the 
bed bars, are required in these templates. These 
holes should be drilled while the plates are either 
riveted or clamped together, to insure accuracy. 
Pushing the bed bars through the headstock, well 
beyond their proper position, as shown in Fig. 153, 
the templates should be erected on these bars, and 
the spindle, which at the outset is in one piece with 

TOOL POST 
BOLT 

HOLE FOR SCREW 
TO BOLT BORING 
TABLE 

J* ^^^XJ *^s« ADJUSTMENT 
r FO* HANDLE £ aTELEL * ODS 

Fig. 154. — The construction of the lathe slide-rest. 

the back poppet, should be rigged up as shown in 
Fig. 153. Assuming that the templates are true, 
this will provide the required parallelism in the 
center lines of the spindle and bed bars. Both 
the spindle and poppet should be blackleaded very 
thinly, the blacklead being mixed with grease. 
When all is ready, the white metal should be 
heated up in a ladle and poured into the cored 
cavity between the several heads and the spindle. 
The castings should be warmed up with a gas jet 




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Building an Amateur's Metal Turning Lathe 199 

preparatory to pouring, and washers of tinplate 
(also blackleaded) should be clamped or bound up 
with wire against the open ends of the cavities. 
In the case of the back poppet, a small (3/32 inch) 
vent hole should be drilled from the top into each 
end of the cavity to let out the air. The metal 
is poured in by the oil holes drilled in the head- 
stock and by the clamp-screw hole in the tail-stock. 
The small vent holes in the latter may be re-drilled 
later on to serve as oil holes. 

Before actually running the metal in, the tail- 
stock lock should be fitted, so that the latter can 
be clamped to the bed bars. This is a very simple 
yet efficient contrivance (see Fig. 155). A slot 
should be arranged in the pattern of the tail-stock 
and, when cleaned out to size, a piece of y 2 . inch 
by % inch steel rod with two circular recesses filed 
in it should be fitted. In the jaws of the tail-stock 
castings, a small eccentric headed handle made out 
of steel bar is filed up and fitted in. The pivot pin 
is a small piece of % inch steel rod. This eccentric 
handle forces up the bar and clamps the tail-stock 
to the bed bars. 

When the white metal is cold, the spindle may 
be removed and sawed in half to form the spindle 
and the sliding poppet. This is screwed y 2 inch 
standard on the reduced diameter to fit a gun- 



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200 



Lathe Work for Beginners 




PLAN Or UNDER SIDE. 
BrtCK POPPET LOCK 



3 T±P7*= 



WHITE METAL- 




MfllN BEARING 



BHCK BEARING 



Fig. 155. — The constructional details of the amateur bench lathe. 



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Building an Amateur's Metal Turning Lathe 201 

metal cap tapped with the same thread. This cap 
is screwed on to the end of the tail-stock with two 
% inch screws, and the end of the poppet is 
squared for the handle. The screw holes are 
marked out from those in the cap flange, with the 
cap in position on the tail-stock feed-screw. The 
set-screw is a % inch set-screw with a hole through 
the head for a 3/16 inch pin. To protect the pop- 
pet from damage, a pad of brass rod is dropped 
into the bottom of the hole (see Fig. 152). 

Progress having been made so far, the spindle 
may be removed and, if there is any tendency to 
shake, the two bearings of the head-stock may be 
slit with a hack saw as shown in the drawings. In 
any case this had better be done, since it wilJ 
enable the bearings to be adjusted for wear. To 
effect this adjustment, screws are fitted into the 
lugs provided in the castings. Another idea would 
be to cut the slits before running in the white 
metal. The slits could be forced open slightly by 
pushing in a piece of plate or wood just before 
running the metal. This piece would then be re- 
moved, any white metal being cleared out of the 
slit, and the tendency then would be for the head 
to grip the white metal independently of any pres- 
sure put onto the latter by the adjusting screws 
at the side. The nose of the spindle should be 



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202 Lathe Work for Beginners 

screwed with the dies % inch standard thread, and 
a standard steel lockrmt should be driven on 
tightly to the end of the thread. This lock-nut 
may be faced as soon as the tool-rest and driving 
mechanism are completed. The main bearing is 
a bearing only ; the thrust and end adjustment of 
the spindle are all arranged for at the other bear- 
ing. Two commercial ball thrust bearings or col- 
lars for y 2 inch spindle are fitted on the reduced 
diameter of the spindle. These are brought up 
to the inner and outer faces of the outer bearing 
of the head-stock by double nuts, and where a 
screw cutting lathe is considered as a final develop- 
ment of the lathe the spindle should be left about 
% inch longer than ordinarily required at the 
outer end. The thrust having been fitted, the 
pulley may be fixed on the spindle. With a reason- 
ably true and clean casting this heed only to be 
bored, the belt faces being skimmed up one by one 
with a file after the lathe is fitted up. If the bor- 
ing is to be done on the lathe itself, then a "jury" 
pulley made of wood must be rigged up, as already 
mentioned, . and a face-plate provided on which 
to bolt it. This job, however, is one which may 
be "done out" with the drilling for the bed bars. 
By the time the lathe has reached this stage some 
sort of driving mechanism must be provided. The 



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Building an Amateur's Metal Turning Lathe 203 

making of a pattern and getting a wheel cast in 
iron is the proper method, but this will be found 
beyond the resources of the average amateur. 
Very often an old wheel and crank shaft or a 
wheel which will run on a stud pin can be. picked 
up at a scrap iron dealer's. An old sewing ma- 
chine treadle might be pressed into service, the 
wheel being weighted up with lead pipe. The 
writer has seen a very respectable treadle made 
up out of layers of % inch floorboards, laid cross 
"grain, with a center bearing made by driving in 
a piece of iron gas barrel and nutting the same on 
each end. 

The next operation will be to bore the back pop- 
pet for its center. For accuracy nothing is better 
than the conical center and if the Morse taper is 
adopted a standard chuck may be fitted in either 
the spindle or the back poppet. A master chuck, 
consisting of a piece of brass or iron, may be 
drilled and tapped to suit the lathe spindle nose, 
and in this a % inch drill may be fixed, and the 
poppet drilled up for a distance of at least y 2 inch. 
A coned "D" bit or a Morse taper reamer may be 
used to finish the hole. This bit should then be 
reversed and used in the spindle hole to insure 
their being of exactly the same taper. 

The tee-rest for hand turning is shown in Fig. 



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204 



Lathe Work far Beginners 



HEflD STOCK 



©ED BAR55 




DETAILS 
OF TEE REST^ 



DRILLED | OR CORED \ 




L HOLES FOR TOOL^ wi*h-i_ i nrw 

REST ©OCT "^ TO TOP v Y\s 

DETAILS OF BORING TABLE 



Fig. 156. — The constructional details of the amateur bench lathe. 



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Building an Amateur's Metal Turning Lathe 205 

156. This may be used in conjunction with the 
boring table, or by arranging two slabs of iron 
as shown. With a square necked % inch carriage 
bolt and fly nut a good fixing may be obtained 
without damaging the surfaces of the bed bars. 
The square neck of the bolt should be % inch deep. 
This neck will then prevent the bolt from falling 
through the hole in the top slab of iron, and yet 
allow the bolt to draw down on the tee-rest fork. 
Further by inclining the fork at the foot of the 
tee-rest, the latter should readily slide under the 
head of the bolt. The square neck also holds the 
bolt while the fly nut (or wing nut) is being 
tightened up. The tee-rest may be swiveled in 
any desired position and the height adjusted to 
requirements. The tee-rest itself is best cast in 
malleable iron, but it may, of course, be built up 
of rectangular iron bar and a piece of % inch 
round steel rod. 

As an improvement on the two flat bars, a bor- 
ing table is illustrated in Figs. 152 and 156. This 
is a step in the direction of finally making the tool 
a screw cutting lathe. The same system of adjust- 
ing the bearing on the bed bars as used in the 
head-stock spindle bearings is employed. The 
casting is sawed after boring and after the % inch 
holes for the adjusting screws have been drilled 



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206 Lathe Work for Beginners 

and tapped. The later holes, it will be noticed, 
are drilled and tapped right through the upper 
surface. This may as well be done at the outset 
as the holes may be subsequently found of service 
in bolting work down to the boring table. The 
boring table will require to be planed, filed, or 
turned up quite true with the surface of the bed 
bars. The table will just swing in the lathe itself, 
but unless the iron is very soft it would hardly 
do to attempt it. However, when a slide rest is 
made, the latter may be rigged up on a temporary 
boring table and a cut taken over its surface. For 
this work the table should be bolted to the face- 
plate, a casting for which may be obtained at any 
tool dealer. The face-plate casting should be 
drilled and tapped % inch standard, run on the 
nose, the boss faced at the back, and the plate then 
reversed. The front of the face-plate may then 
be faced. 

The boring table has two lugs oxi the front for 
the bolt holding the slide rest. These holes are 
used only when large diameter work such as boiler 
shell tube is in the lathe being skimmed up or 
trued at the ends. A stiff er support for the slide- 
rest can be obtained by bolting into either one 
of the two holes provided in the boring table be- 
tween the bed bars. 



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Building an Amateur's Metal Turning Lathe 207 

With regard to further developments, the slide 
rest that may be at some time fitted may be of the 
usual type with V slides, or, if desired, the scheme 
for making the bed of the lathe may be used, 
namely, two bars. These should be at least % 
inches diameter and about 6 inches long so that 
a traverse of 3y 2 inches could be obtained. Fig. 
154, is a sketch of the idea. For screw cutting, a 
bearing should be provided for the outer exten- 
sion of the lead screw, this also forming a bearing 
for the "eye" of the quadrant, on which the 
change wheels are arranged. 



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CHAPTER XII 
BUILDING A SIMPLE WOOD TURNING LATHE 

Maple Bed — Patterns — Castings — Machining — Assembly — 
Attachments. 

This Chapter will be devoted to the construc- 
tion of an amateur's wood-turning lathe. The 
lathe is of very simple construction and has a 
swing of 7 inches and a 3 foot bed. The pattern 



@@. 



;sc — s: 



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Fig. 157. — The complete amateur's wood -turning lathe. 

can be made with the few tools found in the aver- 
age amateur's workshop. 

The first thing to make will be the patterns. As 
only a few castings are to be made the patterns 
can be made of any wood that is handy. The pat- 
tern A, Fig. 158, answers for both the head-stock 
and tail-stock. A solid one piece pattern will do, 
though if a large number of castings were to be 

208 



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Building a Simple Wood Turning Lathe 209 




J_L 



K*-H 



M*H» 



Gil 



-fe 



.*'*- 



•.ff- 



T~K J~~ 





08 



03 

h3 






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210 Lathe Work for Beginners 

made it would be best to split the pattern along 
its center line. The connecting piece between the 
two bearings is to prevent the casting from spring- 
ing after being poured and also to prevent spring- 
ing while drilling out for the bearings. A slight 
taper should be given the pattern from each side 
of the center line to facilitate the withdrawal of 
the pattern from the mold. 

The hand wheel B is used as the clamping wheel 
for securing the hand rest and tail-stock to the 
bed of the lathe. It is al&o used as the turning 
wheel for the tail-stock spindle. Three castings 
are required from this pattern and two from the 
pattern C. If there should happen to be an old 
junk yard at hand the builder may be able to find 
some old wheels and washers that would answer 
the purpose. 

The cone pulley pattern is turned up to the 
dimensions shown. Two pulley castings are re- 
quired; one for the lathe and the other for the 
countershaft or source of power. E is the pattern 
for the hand rest body. 

When the patterns are completed they are taken 
to a foundry and the required number of castings 
obtained. While waiting for the castings work on 
the lathe bed can be started. 

The lathe bed, or ways, are made up of two 



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Building a Simple Wood Turning Lathe 211 




5 ^ 



I 



•3 
1 



s 



I 



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212 Lathe Work for Beginners 

strips of good, clear, hard maple, free from knots 
and splits. The dimensions are 1 inch thick, 4 
inches wide and the length about 36 inches. If a 
longer bed is desired the thickness should be in- 
creased to about iy 2 inches. A trip to any wood- 
working or cabinet shop and the amateur will be 
able to obtain a piece «of maple and have it planed, 
dressed and cut to shape at small cost. The bench 
legs F are also made of maple. Two of these legs 
are required and care should be taken to have fhe 




Fig. 160.— The lathe bed assembled. 

upper part which separates the two ways cut to 
exact size and square. 

A % inch hole is bored through the head-stock 
leg in such a position that it will come in alignment 
with the y 2 inch tapped hole in the bottom of the 
head-stock. This % inch hole is recessed at its 
bottom to clear a half inch nut and washers. 

After the bed is completed it is well sanded and 
given a coat of clear shellac to prevent warping. 
If maple is not available, good clear white oak 



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Building a Simple Wood Turning Lathe 213 

will answer the purpose. The assembled bed is 
illustrated in Fig. 160. The method of securing 
the bed to the legs by means of eight % inch car- 
riage bolts will be seen in this illustration. 

When the castings are obtained the first work 
will be on the head-stock and tail-stock casting. 
These two pieces are set up in the shaper or mill- 
ing machine and the outside ends of the bearings 
faced off. The centers of the bearings are laid 
off and centerpunched and the bearings drilled out 
between centers in a lathe with a 47/64 inch drill. 
The center piece is now sawed off and the inside 
ends of the bearings faced off to dimensions. The 
bearings are reamed out with a % inch reamer 
and the two castings are placed in their proper 
relation to each other upon a piece of % inch 
shafting or mandrel. The castings are set up on 
the bed of a planer, miller or shaper and leveled up 
with the piece of shafting holding the four bear- 
ings in alignment. The bottoms of the two cast- 
ings are then machined to dimensions. 

Oil holes are drilled out in the lugs of the head- 
stock bearings for that purpose. The front lug 
on the tail-stock is drilled and tapped for a 3/16 
inch thread. A clamp, or locking device shown in 
J is turned up and then heated and bent to shape. 
A piece of soft copper or brass should be inserted 



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214 Lathe Work for Beginners 

between the clamp and the tail-stock spindle to 
prevent scoring of the spindle. The rear bearing 
of the tail-stock is tapped out with a % inch 
9 thread tap. Half inch holes are tapped out as 
shown. 

The head-stock spindle I is turned up from a 
piece of 1% inch machine steel and has a % inch 
hole drilled clear through. The spindle is % 
inch in diameter and the nose is % inch in 
diameter and threaded 9 threads to the inch. This 
end is reamed out with a No. 1 Morse taper reamer. 
The tail-stock spindle M is made from a piece of 
% inch stock and is also % inch in diameter 
except the threaded part which is % i nc h> 9 
threads. 

When turning up these spindles it is best to 
first accurately center the piece of stock and drill 
half way through with a % inch driJJ, reverse and 
then drill through from the other end. If the 
stock has been accurately centered the two holes 
will meet correctly. After drilling the last hole 
the piece is reamed out with the taper reamer and 
then turned and finished between centers. 

The cone pulley L is turned up to dimensions 
and the pulley faces given a crown finish. The 
width should be such that it makes a nice easy 
running fit between the two bearings. After 



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Building a Simple Wood Turning Lathe 215 

assembling the pulley and the spindle in the head- 
stock the small pulley can be drilled through in 
to the spindle and tapped out for a % inch head- 
less set screw. 

The hand wheel N is drilled out % inch to fit 
the rear end of the spindle M and is held in place 
by means of a % inch set screw. The two other 
wheels are drilled and tapped for a y 2 inch thread. 

The two washers are faced off and drilled out 
with a 9/16 drill. The stud K is for securing the 
head-stock to the bed and passes clear through the 
% inch hole in the head-stock leg and is set up on 
from underneath the leg. Another y 2 inch stud 
about 7 inches long is required for the tail-stock, 
also a y 2 inch square headed bolt for the hand 
rest body P. 

The hand rest P is planed off on the bottom and 
drilled out with a % inch drill. A % inch set 
screw is used to secure the tee-rest. A very good 
tee-rest can be made from a piece of % inch by 
1 inch flat steel welded to a piece of % inch shaft- 
ing. Several of these rests should be made up of 
different lengths. 

Cast iron makes an excellent bearing metal for 
a lathe of this type though if the builder so desires 
he can bore the bearings out and fit them with 
k bushings or else Babbitt them. 



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216 Lathe Work for Beginners 

A lathe of this type will prove very serviceable 
in the amateur's workshop, especially if he adds 
such attachments as a circular saw and table, jig 
saw attachment, grinding table and sand disc 
wheel, buffing and emery wheel attachments, etc. 



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CHAPTEE Xm 
HOW TO BUILD A MODEL RAPID-FIRE NAVAL GUN 

Gun Design — Machining of Parts — Use of D-Bit — Polishing — 
Finishing — Assembly, etc. 

When the beginner learns how to properly 
manipulate his lathe, he will naturally look for 
some project on which to try his skill. For this 
reason the author decided to add a chapter der 
scribing the model naval gun which is a dandy 
shop project that comes within the scope of the 
small lathe. 

The beautiful model illustrated (Fig. 161) is 
that of a six-inch naval gun which involves fea- 
tures of both French and American origin. The 
gun is twenty-four times smaller than a regular 
six-inch naval gun. Since it was constructed from 
memory, there may be many parts which are more 
or less original with the builder although, at the 
same time, they should not be far from general 
ordnance practice. One good feature of the gun 
for those who wish to construct it, is that it in- 
volves no castings of any kind, all parts being 
cut from solid steel or brass stock. 

217 



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2:8 



Lathe Work for Beginners 



The barrel of the gun measures 8*4 inches in 
length without the breech mechanism. This is 
shown in Fig. 162. It has a bore of .25 inch and 
fires a standard .25 calibre Winchester center-fire 




Fig. 161. — The model rapid-fire gun. 

bullet. The total length of the barrel and breech 
mechanism is 10 inches over all. The barrel is 
turned into shape from a piece of 1 inch cold- 
rolled steel stock. A taper 5% inches long is turned, 
on the barrel. The muzzle of the gun, after the 



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How to Build a Model Rapid-Fire Gun 219 

taper is turned, should have a diameter of 9/16 
inch, while the breech end of the barrel measures 




Fig. 162.— The barrel of the model gun, 




Fig. 163. — The base and carriage for the model gun. 

11/16 inch. The portion of the barrel which rests 
on the carriage is turned to 13/16 inch. After 



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220 Lathe Work for Beginners 

this work is done, the barrel of the gun is bored 
out. This can be done with a D-bit, or it may be 
bored in by an extension drill fixed to the end of 
a silver steel rod. Great care should be used in 
boring this, and the drill should be taken out fre- 
quently to remove the chips. Otherwise the drill 
will catch and break, and this will probably neces- 
sitate the making of a new barrel. Plenty of oil 
should be used to lubricate the drill and but a 
slight pressure should be used. 

The breech housing (Fig. 164) is next cut into 
shape from a piece of 1% inch steel stock. This 
is chucked off the center, and one end of it is 
turned down to a diameter of 1 1/16 inches. A 
hole is then drilled in this piece 13/16 inch in 
diameter, to receive the barrel of the gun. A very 
close fit should be produced here, and the barrel 
of the gun is heated and shrunk into this hole. 
This obviates all pinning and screwing which is 
not in accordance with good practice in the manu- 
facture of arms. The builder can now proceed to 
finish the breech housing. This is sawed out and 
finished with a file, as shown in the detail draw- 
ing. The inside width of the breech is % inch, 
and it measures 1% inches in length, without the 
back cover plate. The cover plate is cut into 
shape from a piece of y s inch steel, and this is 



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How to Build a Model Rapid-Fire Gun 221 



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222 Lathe Work for Beginners 

held to the back of the breech housing with six 
hexagon head machine screws, which were made 
especially for the gun. 

It will be advisable to pass on to the remainder 
of the gun, leaving the breech mechanism to the 
last. Starting with the base of the gun and build- 
ing up to the carriage would probably be the most 
logical procedure. The base (Fig. 166) presents 
a nice job in turning, since it is made from a solid 
piece of 4 inch cold rolled steel stock. If the 
builder does not have a lathe large enough to 
accommodate such a piece of work, or if the job 
of turning it looks too big, a wooden pattern for 
this piece could be cast in iron. In this event, it 
would not be necessary to core the pattern, since 
the center hole of the base, in which the carriage 
is riveted, could be drilled out with a % i nc h drill, 
or in the event that such a drill is not available, 
the hole could be turned out on the lathe. A small 
hole is drilled in the base, as shown in the draw- 
ing, and this is threaded to receive a 6 X 32 set 
screw. This set screw has a handle bent at an 
angle so that it can be tightened with the fingers. 
A steel pin is driven in the top of the base, and 
this engages with a hole drilled in a 2% inch 
steel gear wheel, which has 95 teeth. The center 
of this gear is drilled out with a % inch drill, so 



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How to Build a Model Rapid-Fire Gun 223 






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224 Lathe Work for Beginners 

that it will slip over the shaft of the main carriage 
frame. This frame presents a good job in turn- 
ing and cutting. It is worked into shape from a 
piece of 4-inch steel stock, 4% inches long. Like 
the base, a pattern for this particular member 
could be easily made and a casting obtained which 
would require little labor to finish to the proper 
dimensions. A 3/16 inch shoulder with a diameter 
of 1 9/16 inches is turned on the bottom of the 
carriage frame and the brass gear covering for 
the larger gear wheel fits over this. The gear 
cover is turned into shape from a piece of 2% 
inch brass stock. A small recess is filed in the 
periphery of this cover so that it will not inter- 
fere with the spur gear on the side, which actuates 
the range by meshing with the main gear on the 
barrel. The spur gear is fixed to the end of a 
shaft which is held to the side of the carriage by 
a- small bracket, which provides two bearings for 
the shaft. On the opposite end of this shaft, a 
small wheel is arranged with six small handles on 
its periphery. Detail of this bracket is shown at 
the right of the main carriage frame. It is fixed 
to the side of the carriage, by means of two small 
machine screws. The cradle for the barrel (Fig. 
166) is cut from a solid piece of brass 1 5/16 inches 
square. This piece is drilled out to receive the 



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How to Build a Model Rapid-Fire Gun 225 




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226 Lathe Work for Beginners 

carriage of the gun. After the hole is drilled in 
place, the top of the carriage, for three-quarters of 
its length, is cut away. The bearings for the barrel 
are placed on this member and consist of two steel 
studs y 2 inch in diameter and provided with a 10-32 
thread, which screws into the side of the cradle. 
Between one of these shaft studs and the brass 
cradle, a gear quadrant is fixed (Fig. 165). This 
quadrant has a radius of iy s inches and can be 
cut from a 2% inch standard brass gear. The 
teeth of this quadrant mesh with a small brass 
spur gear, which is attached to the end of a hori- 
zontal shaft that passes through the small steel 
bearing fixed to the main carriage of the gun. At 
the opposite end of this shaft is a small steel 
wheel which has handles fixed to its periphery. 
A glance at the elevation end plan of the gun will 
make this feature clear. It will be seen that by 
turning this handle the grin can either be elevated 
or lowered. At the extreme of its elevation, the 
barrel of the gun is about 45 degrees. 

The gun is held at any elevation by means of a 
set screw, which passes through a slotted member 
which has a radius of 1 11/16 inches. This par- 
ticular piece is shown in the detail drawing (Fig. 
165) in the lower right hand corner. It has a hole 
drilled in it at one end 3/16 inch in diameter 



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How to Build a Model Rapid-Fire Gun 227 

through which the screw passes to hold it to the 
inside of the main frame. The piece should be 
free to move, as this is necessary to compensate 
for the movement of the barrel of the gun. The 
set screw passes through the slot screws into the 
side of the brass cradle. At the bottom of the 
brass cradle, a circular recess is cut with a radius 
of 5/16 inch. A recoil cylinder is cut from a solid 
piece of brass stock 5/18 inch in diameter with a 
1/16 inch wall. A cap is made for this cylinder, 
and it is merely held in place by means of a good 
fit. There is no objection, however, to threading 
this so it can be screwed into place. The plunger 
is a brass rod threaded at one end to receive a 
circular brass piece y 2 inch in diameter and *4 
inch wide. At the opposite end it is threaded 
% inch of its length to receive two small nuts 
with knurled edges. This particular part of the 
piston passes through a hole in the end opposite 
to that which carries the cap, and one of the screws 
is used to adjust the tension on the spring, while 
the other is placed on the shaft after the gun has 
been put in the carriage, this shaft passing 
through a hole in a small bracket or yoke fixed 
underneath the forward part of the breech hous- 
ing. The barrel can be removed from its carriage 
by merely taking off this screw and sliding it out. 



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228 



Lathe Work for Beginners 




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How to Build a Model Rapid-Fire Gun 229 

The recoil spring is wound from eighteen gauge 
spring wire, so that it will fit in the recoil chamber. 

The bearings of the gun are made of cold-rolled, 
stock cut from a solid piece. These rest in a semi- 
circular recess in the gun carriage. They are held 
in place with special machine screws provided with 
hexagonal heads. The bearing for the side on 
which the quadrant is attached is made % inch 
wide to compensate for this piece. The bearing 
on the opposite side is made 5/15 inch wide. With 
the addition of a small brass cover, which springs 
over the bracket on the inside of the gun, which 
holds the vertical bearing for the range spur gear, 
the gun is finished with the exception of the breech 
housing. 

The breech mechanism (Fig. 167) will now be 
described and this is really more difficult to do on 
paper than to follow in the actual construction. 
The mechanism has been reduced to its simplest 
form, all unnecessary parts having been sup- 
pressed. The first thing to do will be to cut a 
recess on the inside of the breech housing. This 
recess is cut to a depth of about y s inch and takes 
the shape shown by the dotted line in the detail 
drawing of the breech housing (Fig. 164). This 
recess should really be cut before the breech hous- 
ing has been shrunk on the barrel as this will 



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230 Lathe Work for Beginners 

facilitate working with a small chisel, by means 
of which this recess is cut. A 5/16 inch hole is 
then drilled as shown at A in the drawing. The 
crank of this crankshaft is on the inside of the 
breech housing and rests in the recess previously 
cut. The projecting part of the crank on the in- 
side engages with a groove slotted diagonally 
across the side of the breech block. This is shown 
at B. The outside end of the small crank-shaft 
also has a cam arrangement, through the center 
of which passes the operating level which also acts 
as a set screw, the hole being drilled into the 
crankshaft, into which the threaded end of the 
lever passes. The collar or cam is shown clearly 
in the drawing at C and presents but an ordinary 
lathe job, the regular portion being shaped with a 
hacksaw and file. It will be seen that by actuating 
the crankshaft by means of a lever, the breech will 
be caused to move downward uncovering the 
breech of the gun. No extracting mechanism is 
included since this would lead to complications in 
construction. 

The breech block is sawed into shape from a 
piece of cold-rolled stock, and if the builder has 
access to a shaper the job can be done much more 
easily, beside giving a more accurate result than 
would otherwise be possible. The dimension and 



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How to Build a Model Rapid-Fire Gun 231 

shape of the breech block is shown at B in the 
drawing. A back cover plate is cut and held in 
place on the breech block with filister head ma- 
chine screws. The holes in the block are counter- 
sunk so that the heads of the machine screws will 
be flush with the surface. The shaper can also 
be used to advantage in producing this back cover 
plate, although this need not discourage the 
mechanic who cannot use such a machine. The 
groove in the back can be ground out roughly with 
a % inch abrasive wheel, after which it can be 
finished up with a file. 

The back plate and the breech block is shown 
in the drawing at D (Fig. 164). A hole through 
which the firing pin passes before it strikes the 
center of the shell is drilled in the center of the 
breech block, y 2 inch down from the top. 

The firing pin is shown at E in the drawing 
(Fig. 164). This is filed into shape from a piece 
of cold-rolled steel stock. A square hole is cut in 
the firing pin, and a shaft passes through this to 
the outer end of which is fastened a small handle, 
shown at F. The shaft is also shown in detail 
here. The handle acts as a set screw on the shaft 
for the eccentric arrangement. The spring for 
the firing pin is very heavy and is bent into the 
shape shown at G. Before this spring is bent, it 



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232 Lathe Work for Beginners 

will be necessary to anneal it somewhat and then 
harden it after it is in its final shape. This spring 
is interposed between the back of the breech block 
and the firing pin, the projecting portions of the 
spring fits in the notch, which is filed in the back 
of the firing pin. Eef erence to both of these mem- 
bers on the drawing will make this clear. While 
the spring is soft a hole is drilled in the bottom 
by means of which it is screwed to the breech 
block on the inside. 

By actuating the small lever upon the shaft on 
which the firing pin is placed, the spring is com- 
pressed between the back of the firing pin and the 
breech block. After the spring has been forced 
back to this position, it is held in place by a small 
catch, shown at H in the drawing (Fig. 165). This 
is placed just forward of the lower part of the 
firing pin at the bottom of the breech block, and 
is held in place by a small shaft. The forward 
movement of this lever holds the firing pin in a 
cocked position by catching in the little notch 
shown in the drawing of the firing pin. Pulling 
this small lever backward releases the firing pin 
and it flies forward with a pressure of 7 lbs., 
which is necessary to fire a .25 Winchester shell. 
When the breech block is moved downward at the 
time the shell is to be ejected, the cam arrange- 



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Haw to Build a Model Rapid-Fire Gun 233 

ment on the outside of the crankshaft automa- 
tically cocks the gun so that it will be ready to 
fire when the breech block is returned to firing 
position. This it does by means of a little cam 
arrangement on the shaft of the firing pin, which 
forces the lever forward, thereby compressing the 
firing pin. At this time, it will be necessary to 
push the little lever forward on the bottom of the 
breech which will lock the firing pin in a cocked 
position. 

By careful study of the drawings and photo- 
graphs, these details can be readily understood 
and assembled intelligently by the constructor. 

The gun sight is composed of two parts, the 
forward and after sight. The forward sight is a 
small ball 1/16 inch in diameter and is fastened 
on top of the gun cradle directly in line with the 
after-sight which was copied from a Hotchkiss 
gun. It is situated on the top of the breech hous- 
ing and has a slike with a small carriage. It 
travels % inch and is operated by a lead screw. 
A V is cut on the top of the carriage and when 
the V is in line with the ball of the forward sight 
the apparent range is then found. 



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INDEX 



Advanced Lathe Work, 128 
Aluminum, How to Spin, 185 
Amateur Lathe, Rugged, 32 
Angle-plate Used with Face- 
plate, 141 
Annealing Metals, 179, 184 
Apron Clutch, 50 
Apron Handle, 50 
Arm-rest, 118 

Ash Tray, How Handled, 187 
Assembling of Gun Parte, 233 
Attachments and Their Use, 54 

B 

Back-center, Revolving, 177 

Back Gears, 25, 48, 49 

Bar, Boring, 134 

Barnes, Lathe, 23 

Beads, or Convex Cuts, 172 

Bearing Metal for Lathe, 215 

Bearings, 22, 26, 47, 198, 201, 

213 
Bearings, Headstock, 47 
Beds, Lathe, 20, 22, 29, 32, 193, 

207, 210 
Bench Lathe Countershafts, 40, 

41 
Bench Lathe Motors, 41 
Bench Lathe Turret, 66 
Bench Lathes, 26, 27, 29, 32, 192 
Bent Thread Tool, 156 
Blocks, Form, 187, 189 
Boring a Small Cylinder, 139 
Boring and How it is Done, 132 



Boring Bar, 134 
Boring Table, Flat, 30 
Boring Tool, 133, 134 
Boring Tool, Grinding, 134 
Brass, How to Drill, 123 
Brass, Negative Rake for, 112 
Brass Pin, Turning a, 105 
Brass, Threading, 156 
Building a Metal Turning Lathe, 

192 
Building a Wood Turning Lathe, 

208 
Bushings, Making, 126 



Calipers, 88 

Care of the Lathe, 174 

Care of Tools, 175 

Carriage, 50 

Carriage, Lathe, Speed of, 49 

Cast-iron, Cutting, 135 

Cast-iron, Threading, 156 

Catalogues of Lathes, 17 

Centering Drill, 109 

Center, Live, 46 

Center of Stock, Finding, 107 

Center Rests, 54 

Center, Revolving, Simple, 190 

Center, Screw, for Wood Turn- 
ing, 159 

Center, Spur, for Wood Turn- 
ing, 159 

Chaser, Hand, Use of, 146 

Chaser, Internal, 150 

Chasers, Thread Cutting, 146 



235 



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236 



Index 



Choosing a Lathe, 17 

Chucks, 25, 60, 61, 97, 118, 125, 

128, 129 
Chucks and How to Use Them, 

128 
Chucks, Compression, 50, 61, 97 
Clearance in Drills, 120 
Collar, Micrometer, 52 
Compound Slide Rest, 28 
Compression Chuck, 61, 125 
Concave Cuts in Wood, 171 
Cone, 45 

Cone Bearings, 22 
Cone Pulley, 21, 193,210 
Construction, Features of, 21 
Convex Cuts, or Beads, 172 
Copper Cup, Spinning a, 180 
Copper, Lubricant for, 183 
Countershaft, Mounting, 35 
Countershaft, Operation of, 36 
Countershaft Speeds, 38 
Countershafts for Bench Lathes, 

40, 41 
Counter-weight, Adjustable, 142 
Cross Cutting, How Done, 52 
Cross Feed, 53 
Cross Feeds, Automatic, 50 
Cup, Copper, Spinning a, 180 
Cup, More Elaborate, 189 
Cup, Turning a, 133 
Cutters, Gear, 61 
Cutters, Milling, 57, 58 
Cutting Action of Lathe, 103 
Cutting Gears, 62 
Cutting Sheet Metal, 143 
Cylinder, Boring a Small, 139 



DrBit, Use of, 220 
Disc Grinder for Small Lathe, 
125 



Dividers, Spring, 99 
Dogs, Lathe, 110 
Drill, Centering, 109 
Drill Chuck, 118 
Drill Gauge, 98 
Drill-grinding Gauge, 122 
Drill, Names of Parts, 121 
Drill Pad, 120 

Drill Press, Lathe Used as, 118 
Drill, Re-grinding a, 121, 123 
Drilling Brass, 123 
Drilling, Directions for, 120 
Drilling Holes Crosswise, 120 
Drilling Steel, 123 
Drills, Clearance in, 120 
Drills, Re-grinding, 121 
Driving Pulley, 37 
Driving the Lathe, 34 
Drummond Lathe, English, 29 

E 

Eccentric Turning on Face- 
plate, 139 
Electric Motor Power, 38 
Enclosed Gears, 29 

F 
Face-plate and Its Use, 136 
Face-plate, Eccentric Turning 

on, 139 
Face-plate for Wood Turning, 

168 
Facing Off a Pulley, 137 
Facing Tool and Its Use, 114 
Feed Handle, 51 
Feeds, Cross, Automatic, 50 
Filing Attachment, 76 
Finishing Wood in the Lathe, 

167 
Fluting Reamers, 63 
Form Block for Metal Spinning, 

187, 189 



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Index 



237 



G 

Gas Engine Power, 38 

Gauge, Depth, 92 

Gauge, Drill, 98 

Gauge, Drill-grinding, 122 

Gauge, Thread, 100 

Gauge, Thread-tool, 154 

Gauges, Snap, 101 

Gear Cutters, 61 

Gear, Idling, 151 

Gears, Back, 25, 48, 49 

Gears, Cutting, 62 

Gears, Enclosed, 29 

Gears, How Meshed, 49, 64 

Gluing Wood to Size and Shape, 

169 
Goodell-Pratt Lathe, 26 
Gouge Tool, 162 
Grease, Getting Rid of, 34 
Grinder, Disc, for Small Lathe, 

125 
Grinders, Tool Post, Electric, 54 
Grinding Attachments, 68 
Groover for Metal Spinning, 180 
Grooves, Cutting Semi-circular, 

167 
Gun Design, 218 
Gun, naval, model Rapid-fire, 

217 

H 
Hand Chaser, Use of, 146 
Hand Turning Procedure, 115 
Hand Turning Tools, 117 
Hangers, Shaft, 36 
Headstock, 22, 45, 49, 193, 196, 

201, 208 
Headstock Bearings, 47 
Headstock Motor, 31 
Heat Treatment of Metals, 179, 

184 
Heavy Turning, 25 



Holes Drilled Crosswise through 

Round Stock, 120 
Hollow Spindle, 21 
Hook Tool and Its Use, 118 
Huhn Lathe, 32 



Idling Gear, 151 

Index Head, 82, 85 

Index Head, Improvised, 77 

Index Plates, 61, 62, 152, 153 

Inside Turning, 118 



Jig Saw Attachment, Home- 
made, 67 •) 

K 
Key-ways, Cutting, 85 



Lathe, Barnes, 23 

Lathe Beds, 20, 22, 29, 32, 193, 

207,210 
Lathe, Care of the, 174 
Lathe, Choosing a, 17 
Lathe, Cutting Action of, 103 
Lathe-dogs and Their Use, 110 
Lathe, Driving the, 34 
Lathe, English Drummond, 29 
Lathe, Goodell-Pratt, 26 
Lathe, Huhn, 32 
Lathe, Metal Turning, Building 

a, 192 
Lathe, Millers Falls, 19 
Lathe, Mounting and Leveling 

the, 35 
Lathe, Oiling the, 47, 50, 52, 174 
Lathe, Rugged Amateur, 32 
Lathe, Rivett Precision, 27 
Lathe, Seneca Falls, 20 



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238 



Index 



Lathe, Setting Up the, 34 
Lathe, Simple Type, 19 
Lathe, Stark Precision, 26 
Lathe, the, and Its Parts, 45 
Lathe, Unpacking the, 34 
Lathe, Wood Turning, 157 
Lathe, Wood Turning, Building 

a, 208 
Lathe, Wood Turning, Patterns 

for, 208 
Lathe Work, Advanced, 128 
Lathes, Bench, 26, 27, 29, 32, 

192 
Lathes, Catalogues of, 17 
Lathes, Features of Construc- 
tion, 21, 157, 192, 208 
Lathes, Metal Turning, 19-33, 

45, 192 
Lathes, Price of, 17 
Lathes, Screw-cutting, 23, 28, 31 
Lathes, Wood Turning, 19, 157 
Lead Screws, 23, 49, 64 
Lead Screw Speeds, 31 
Lighting of the Lathe, 39 
Line Shaft, 36, 39 
Line Shaft Horse Power, 38 
live Center, 46 
Live Spindle, 46 
Lubricant for Copper, 183 
Lubricants for Brass and Zinc, 

188 

M 
Machining of Gun Parts, 219 
Mandrels and Their Use, 132 
Measuring Tools and Their Use, 

86 
Meshing of Gears, 49 
Metal Spinning, 176 
Metal Spinning, Speed for, 176 
Metal Spinning, Tools for, 180 
Metals Suitable for Spinning, 178 



Metal Turning, a Lesson in, 103 
Metal Turning Lathe, Building 

a, 192 
Metal Turning Lathes, 19-33, 

45, 192 
Micrometer Collar, 52 
Micrometer Reading, 96 
Micrometers, 94 
Micrometer Scale, Reading the, 

95 
Millers Falls Lathe, 19 
Milling Attachments, 56 
Milling Cutters, 57 
Milling, Vise for, 58 
Motor in Headstock, 31 
Motors for Bench Lathes, 41 
Motors, Starting Box for, 38 
Mounting and Leveling the 

Lathe, 35 
Mounting Irregular Wooden 

Pieces, 169 
Mounting the Countershaft, 35 
Mounting Work to be Bored, 136 

N 
Nose of the Lathe, 47 

O 
Oiling the Lathe, 47, 50, 52, 174 



Pad, Drill, 120 

Parting Tool, 162 

Parting Tool and Its Use, 115 

Parting Tool, How Used, 183 

Parts, Lathe, 45 

Patterns for Wood Turning 

Lathe, 208 
Pitch of Screw, Finding, 147 
Planishing Tool, 180 
Plates, Index, 61, 62, 152 



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Index 



239 



Polishing Work in the Lathe, 173 
Positioning Work for Turning, 

110 
Post, Tool, 51 
Power, Electric Motor, 38 
Power, Gas Engines, 38 
Power, Line Shaft Horse Power, 

38 
Precision Bench Lathe, 26 
Precision Lathes, 23, 25, 33 
Price of Lathes, 17 
Pulley, Cone, 21 
Pulley, Driving, 37 
Pulley, Facing Off a, 137 
Pulley, Turning a, 131 

R 

Rack, 50 

Raising-up Tool, 180 

Rake, Negative and Positive, 
111, 117 

Reamers, Fluting, 63 

Reamer, Use of Large, 144 

Rest, Arm, 118 

Rest, Slide, 50 

Rests, Center, 54 

Revolving Center, Simple, 190 

Rivett Precision Lathe, 27 

Roughing Cuts in Wood Turn- 
ing, 165 

Roughing Tool and Its Use, 111 

Round-Nose Tool, 180 

Round Point Tool, 162 

S 
Sawing Attachments, 67, 70 
Saws, 6-inch coping, 76 
Scale, Compound Rest, 51 
Scale, Milling Attachment, 59, 

60 
Scale, the, 86 



Scraping Tools, 165 

Screw Center for Wood Turning, 

159 
Screw Cutting, 146 
Screw Cutting Attachments, 64 
Screw-cutting Lathes, 23, 28, 31 
Screw, Finding Pitch of, 147 
Screw, Master, 65 
Screws, Lead, 23, 49, 64 
Seneca Falls Lathe, 20 
Setting up the Lathe, 34 
Shaft Hangers, 36 
Shaft, Line, 36, 39 
Sharpening Tools, 105, 163, 165 
Sheet Metal, Cutting, 143 
Sheet Metal Gauge, 178 
Simple Type Lathe, 19 
Skew Chisel, Handling the, 166 
Skew Tools, 162 
Slide Rest, 50 
Slide Rest, Compound, 28 
Snap Gauges, 101 
Spear Point Tool, 162 
Speed for Brass Turning, 113 
Speed for Metal Spinning, 176 
Speed of Lathe Carriage, 49 
Speed of Milling Cutter, 58 
Speed of Wood Turning Lathe, 

158 
Speed Reduction in Threading, 

156 
Speeds, 21, 25, 31, 32, 38, 45, 159 
Speed Used in Spinning, 191 
Spindle, Hollow, 21 
Spindle, Live, 46 
Spindle, Tailstock, 26 
Spinning Aluminum, 185 
Spinning Metal, 176 
Spinning, Speed Used in, 191 
Spinning Tool, How Used, 183 
Spinning Zinc, 185 



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240 



Index 



Spur Center for Wood Turning, 

159 
Square and Scale Combined, 87 
Squaring Holes, 85 
Square Point Tool, 162 
Stark Precision Lathe, 26 
Starting Box for Motors, 38 
Steel, How to Drill, 123 
Steel, Mild, Threading, 156 
Steel, Positive Rake for, 117 



Table, Boring, Flat, 30 
Tailstock, 23, 53 
Tailstock, Off-set, 29 
Tailstock Spindle, 26, 193 
Taper Turning, Long, 53 
Tapers, Turning, 29 
Tee-rest as Used in Wood Turn- 
ing, 160 
Tee-rest for Metal Spinning, 176 
Tee-rest, Use of, 116, 118 
Templates as Used in Wood 

Turning, 172 
Thread Cutting Chasers, 146 
Thread Cutting on Screw-cut- 
ting Lathe, 150 
Thread Cutting, Operation of, 

155 
Thread Cutting Tool, How 

Ground, 154 
Thread Cutting without At- 
tachment, 123 
Thread Gauge, 100 
Thread Tool, Bent, 156 
Thread Tool Gauge, 154 
Threading Brass, 156 
Threading Cast-iron, 156 
Threading Mild Steel, 156 
Threading, Speed Reduction in, 
.156 



Threads, Internal, Cutting, 150 

Thread, U. S. Standard, 147 

Tongue Tool, 180 

Tool Post, 51 

Tool Post Grinders, 54 

Tools, Care of, 175 

Tools for Metal Spinning, 180 

Tools, Hand Turning, 117 

Tools, How to Hold, 161 

Tools, Lathe, and Their Use, 103 

Tools, Measuring, 86 

Tools, Sharpening, 105, 163, 165 

Tools, Wood Turning, 162 

Tray, Ash, 187 

Turning a Small Brass Pin, 105 

Turning, Hand, Procedure, 115 

Turning, Heavy, 25 

Turning, Inside, 118 

Turning, Metal, Lesson in, 103 

Turning, Taper, 53 

Turning Tapers, 29 

Turning, Wood, 157 

Turret for Bench Lathe, 66 

U 

Unpacking the Lathe, 34 



Vernier, Micrometer, 97 
Vise for Milling Work, 58 

W 
Wood Turning, 157 
Wood Turning Lathe, Building 

a, 208 
Wood Turning Lathes, 18, 157 
Wood Turning Tools, 162 
Woods Used in Turning, 167 



Zinc, How to Spin, 185 



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1922 

CATALOGUE 

of LATEST and BEST 

Practical 

Mechanical 

Automobile 

BOOKS 



^IM- 




PRACTICAL BOOKS FOR PRACTICAL MEN 

Any of these books will be sent prepaid 
to any part of the world on receipt of 
price. Remit by Draft, Postal Order, 
Express Order or Registered Letter. 



Published and For Sale by 

THE NORMAN W. HENLEY 
PUBLISHING CO. 

2 West 45th Street, New York, U. S. A. 



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INDEX TO SUBJECTS 



Accidents 27 

Air Brake 25 

Arithmetic 15, 29, 37 

Automobiles. .. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 

Automobile Charts 7 

Aviation 8 

Batteries 19 

Bevel Gears 22 

Brazing and Soldering. . 9 

Cams 22 

Carburetors 5 

Car Charts 9 

Charts 7, 8, 9, 10 

Chemistry 10 

Coal 27 

Coke 10 

Compressed Air 10 

Concrete 11, 12, 13 

Cosmetics 34 

Dictionaries 14, 19 

Dies—Metal Work 13 

Drawing — Sketching 

Paper 14, 15. 

Dynamo 15,16 

Electric Bells 16 

Electricity, 

15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 

Electroplating 20 

Ford Automobile 6 

Gas and Gasoline Engines 

21, 22 

Gearing and Cams 22 

Hydraulics 22 

Ice and Refrigeration... 23 
Inventions — Patents .... 23 

Knots 23 

Lathe Work 24 

Link Motion 26 

Liquid Air 25 

Locomotive Engineering, 

25, 26, 27, 28 
Machinery and Machine 

Shop Practice 28, 29, 30, 31 



Manual Training 32 

Marine Engineering .... 32 

Mechanical Movements . 30 

Metal Work Dies 13 

Mining 32 

Model Making 33 

Motor Boats 33 

Motorcycles 33 

Motor Truck 4 

Paper, Drawing 14 

Patents and Inventions.. 23 

Pattern Making 34 

Perfumery 34 

Plumbing 34, 35 

Radio 16, 18, 19 

Recipe Book 35, 40 

Refrigeration and Ice. . . 23 

Repairing Automobiles... 6 

Rubber Z6 

Saws 36 

Screw Cutting 36 

Sheet Metal Work 13 

Smoke Prevention 27 

Soldering 9 

Starting Systems 5 

Steam Engineering 36, 37 

Steam Heating and Ven- 
tilating 38 

Steel 38 

Storage Batteries 19 

Switchboards \j 

Tapers 24 

Telephone 20 

Thread Cutting 29 

Tool Making 31 

Tractor 6, 39 

Ventilation 38 

Waterproofing t3 

Welding 5, 39 

Wiring 17, 18, 20 

Wireless Telegraphy. 

15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 



9^^ Any of these book* will be sent prepaid to any 
part of the world, on receipt of price. 

REMIT by Draft, Postal Money Order, Express 
Money Order, or by Registered Mall. 



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YOUR LIBRARY IS NOT COMPLETE UNLESS 

YOU HAVE IN IT, FOR REFERENCE, A COPY 

OF HENLEY'S 2 OTH CENTURY RECIPE BOOK 

(See Page 40 for Full Description) 



AUTOMOBILES 



The Modern Gasoline Automobile, Its Design* 
Construction, Operation. 

By Victor W. PagA, M.S.A.E. This is the most complete, 
practical, and up-to-date treatise on gasoline automobiles ana 
their component parts ever published. In the new revised 
and much enlarged edition, all phases of automobile construe- 
tion, operation and maintenance are fully and completely 
described and in language anyone can understand. Every 
part of all types of automobiles, from light cyclecars to 
heavy motor trucks and tractors, are described in a thorough 
manner; not only the automobile, but every item of its 
equipment, accessories, tools needed, supplies and spare parts 
necessary for its upkeep, are fully discussed. It is clearly 
and concisely written by an expert familiar with every 
branch of the automobile industry and the originator of the 
practical system of self -education on technical subjects; it 
is a liberal education in the automobile art, useful to all who 
motor for either business or pleasure. Anyone reading the 
incomparable treatise is in touch with all improvements that 
have been made in motor car construction. All latest de- 
velopments, such as high speed aluminum motors and mul- 
tiple valve and sleeve valve engines, are considered in 
detail. The latest ignition, carburetor and lubrication prac- 
tice is outlined. New forms of change speed gears, and 
final power transmission systems, and all latest chassis im- 
provements, are shown and described. This book is used 
as a text in all leading automobile schools, and is conceded 
to be the standard treatise. 

This book is not too technical for the layman nor too 
elementary for the more expert. It is an incomparable work 
of reference for home or school, 6x9. Cloth, 1,032 pages, 
nearly 1,000 illustrations, 12 folding plates. New Edition 
just published. Price, S4.00 



Hints and Tips for Automobilists. 

By Victor W. PagI The book is ideal for the busy man 
or woman who. wants to know about car operation and 
upkeep because of the economies possible when an automo- 
bile is intelligently operated. It contains many money-saving 
hints and a brief simple exposition of location and remedy 
of roadside troubles apt to occur under ordinary operating 
conditions. Price* 75 cents 



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Questions and Answers Relating to Modern Auto- 
mobile Construction, Driving and Repair. 

By Victor W. Pag*. A self -educator on automobiling, with- 
out an equal. This practical treatise consists of a series of 
thirty-seven lessons, covering with over 2,020 questions and 
their answers — the automobile, its construction, operation 
and repair. The subject matter is absolutely correct and 
explained in simple language. If you can't answer all of 
the following questions, you need this work. The answers 
to these and 2,000 more are to be found in its pages. 

Give the names of all important parts of an automobile 
and describe their functions. Describe action of latest types 
cf kerosene carburetors. What is the difference between a 
"double" ignition system and a "dual" ignition system, 
Name parts of an induction coil. How are valves timed? 
What is an electric motor starter and how does it work? 
What are advantages of worm drive gearing? Name all 
important types of ball and roller bearings. What is a 
"three-quarter" floating axle?— etc., etc. Answers every 
question asked relating to the modern automobile. A popu- 
lar work at a popular price. 5'4 x 7J4. Cloth, 701 pages, 
387 illustrations, 3 folding plates. New Edition just pub- 
lished. Price, 92JSO 

How to Run an Automobile. 

By Victor W. Pag£. This treatise gives concise instruc- 
tions for starting and running all makes of gasoline auto- 
mobiles, how to care for them, and gives distinctive features 
of control. Describes every step tor shifting gears, con- 
trolling engine, etc. Among the chapters contained are: 
I. Automobile Parts and Their Functions. II. General 
Starting and Driving Instructions. III. Typical Control 
Systems — Care of Automobiles. Thoroughly illustrated. 178 
pages, 72 illustrations. Price* 91.50 



The Modern Motor Truck, Its Design, Construc- 
tion, Operation and Repair. 

By Victor W. Pag£. Just off the press and treats on all 
types of motor trucks and industrial tractors and trailers. 
It considers all types of trucks, gasoline and electric and 
all varieties of truck bodies. This book ts^ written in lan- 
guage everyone can understand and is not in any sense of 
the word a technical treatise. It is a practical volume that 
will make special appeal to the truck driver who seeks to 
better his position and to the mechanic charged with the 
repair and upkeep of trucks. The factory or business exec- 
utive who wants to obtain a complete working knowledge of 
truck operation problems will find this book a reference work 
of great value. The truck salesman or automobile dealer 
will find that this work contains information that means 
money to them. All garage and service station men should 
have a copy of this book for reference^ because truck con- 
struction differs from passenger car design in many impor- 
tant respects. Anyone who reads this book is in touch with 
all the practical features that have been tested out in real 
service. Just Issued. Cloth, 6x9, 800 pages, 750 illus- 
trations. Price, 86.00 



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Gasoline and Kerosene Carburetors, Construction, 
Installation and Adjustment. 

By Victor W. Pag£. All leading types of carburetors are 
described in detail, special attention being given to the forms 
devised to use the cheaper fuels such as kerosene. Carbure- 
tion troubles, fuel system troubles, carburetor repairs and 
installation, electric primers and economizers, hot spot mani- 
folds and all modern carburetor developments are considered 
in a thorough manner. Methods of adjusting all types of 
carburetors are fully discussed as well as suggestions for 
securing maximum fuel economy and obtaining highest en- 
gine power. 250 pages, 89 illustrations. Price, $2.00 

Automobile Starting, Lighting and Ignition Sys- 
tems. 

By Victo* W. PAGi. A practical treatise on latest auto- 
mobile starting, lighting ana ignition system practice. This 
practical volume has been written with special reference to 
the requirements of the reader desiring easily understood 
explanatory matter relating to all types of automobile elec- 
trical systems. It can be understood by anyone, even with- 
out electrical knowledge, because elementary electrical prin- 
ciples are considered before any attempt is made to discuss 
features of the various systems. These basic principles are 
clearly stated and illustrated with simple diagrams. All the 
leading systems of starting, lighting and ignition have been 
described and illustrated with the cooperation of the experts 
employed by the manufacturers. Over 200 wiring diagrams 
are shown in both technical and nontechnical forms. Com- 
plete data is given for locating troubles in all systems, the 
various steps being considered in a logical way for those 
without expert electrical knowledge. All ignition systems 
receive full consideration, starting with the simplest battery 
and coil forms found on early cars to the modern short- 
contact timer and magneto methods used with the latest eight 
and twelve-cylinder motors. Full directions are given for 
making all repairs and complete instructions for locating 
troubles with meters. This book is unusually complete, as 
it also includes descriptions of various accessories operated 
by electric current^ such as electrical gear shifts, brake actua- 
tion, signaling devices, vulcanizers, etc. This is the standard 
book on this subject It is used for instruction purposes in 
every automobile school and college in this country. Over 
800 pages, 492 specially made engravings and wiring diagrams. 
New Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Price, $3.00 

Automobile Welding with the Oxy-Acetylene 
Flame. 

By M. Keith Dunham. Explains in a simple manner ap- 
paratus to be used, its care, and how to construct necessary- 
shop equipment. Proceeds then to the actual welding of all 
automobile parts, in a manner understandable by everyone. 
Gives principles never to be forgotten. This book is of ut- 
most value, since the perplexing problems arising when metal 
is heated to a melting point are fully explained and the 
proper methods to overcome them shown. 167 pages, fully 
illustrated. Price, «L60 



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Automobile Repairing Made Easy. 

By Victor W. Pag 6. A thoroughly practical book contain- 
ing complete directions for making repairs to all parts of the 
motor car mechanism. Written in a thorough but non- 
technical manner. Gives plans for workshop construction, 
suggestions for equipment, power needed, machinery ana 
tools necessary to carry on business successfully. Tells how 
to overhaul and repair all parts of all automobiles. The 
information given is founded on practical experience, every- 
thing is explained so simply that motorists and students can 
acquire a full working knowledge of automobile repairing. 
Other works dealing with repairing cover only certain parts 
of the car — this work starts with the engine, then considers 
carburet ion, ignition, cooling and lubrication systems. The 
clutch, change speed gearing and transmission system are 
considered in detail. Contains instructions for repairing 
all types of axles, steering gears and other chassis parts. 
Many tables, short cuts in figuring: and rules of practice 
are given for the mechanic. Explains fully valve and mag- 
neto timing, "tuning" engines, systematic location of trouble, 
repair of Dall and roller bearing, shop kinks, first aid to 
injured and a multitude of subjects of interest to all in the 
garage and repair business. This book also contains Special 
Instructions on Electric Starting, Lighting and Ignition Sys- 
tems, Tire Repairing and Rebuilding, Autogenous Welding, 
Brazing and Soldering, Heat Treatment of Steel, Latest 
Timing Practice, Eight and Twelve-Cylinder Motors, etc., 
etc. You will never "Get Stuck" on a Job if you own 
this book. 1,000 specially made engravings on 500 plates. 
1,056 pages <5# x8). New Edition. Price, S4A0 

The Model T Ford Car, Its Construction, Opera- 
tion and Repair, Including the Fordson Farm 
Tractor, F. A. Lighting and Starting System, 
Ford Motor Truck. 

By Victor W. Pag t. This is the most complete and prac- 
tical instruction book ever published on the Ford car and 
Fordson tractor. All parts of the Ford Model T car and 
Fordson tractor are described and illustrated in a compre- 
hensive manner. The construction is fully treated and op- 
erating principle made clear to everyone. Complete in- 
structions for driving and repairing are given. To the New 
Revised Edition matter has been added on the Ford Truck 
and Tractor Conversion Sets and Genuine Fordson Trac- 
tor. All parts are described. All repair processes illustrated 
and fully explained. Written so all can understand — no 
theory, no guesswork. New revised and enlarged Edition 
just published. 153 illustrations, 410 pages, 2 large folding 
plates. Price, 92.00 

Automobilisf s Pocket Companion and Expense 
Record. 

By Victor W. Pag£. This book is not only valuable as a 
convenient cost record, but contains much information of 
value to motorists. Includes a condensed digest of auto laws' 
of all States. A collection of practical facts for the every- 
day motorist. Convenient pocket size. Price, S1.50 



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Automobile Charts 

By VICTOR W. PAGE, M.S.AJB. 
UNIFORM SIZE— 24" x 38"— PRICE 35 CENTS EACH 

Location of Gasoline Engine Troubles Made Easy. 

This chart shows clearly all parts of a typical four-cylinder 
gasoline engine of the four-cycle type. It simplifies location of all 
engine troubles. No details omitted. (34 x 38.) Price, 35 cents 

Location of Carbnretion Troubles Made Easy. 

It shows clearly how to find carburetion troubles and name* 
all defects liable to exist in the various parts. Instructions are 
given for carburetor adjustment, vacuum feed tank troubles, pressure 
feed system, etc (34 x 38.) Price, 35 cents 

Location of Ignition System Troubles Made Easy. 

In this chart all parts of a typical double ignition system using 
battery and magneto current are shown, and suggestions are given 
for readily finding ignition troubles and eliminating them when 
found. Includes latest Delco, Connecticut and other systems. (34 
X38.) Price, 35 c 



Location of Cooling and Lubricating Troubles. 

This is a combination chart showing all components of the ap- 
proved form of water cooling group as well as a modern engine 
lubrication system. It shows all points where defects exist that 
may result in engine overheating, both in_cooling and oiling systems. 
(24 x 38.) Price, 35 cents 

Lubricationof the Motor Car Chassis. 

This chart presents the plan view of a typicaTsix-cy Under chassia 
Of standard design and outlines all important bearing points re- 
quiring lubrication, and is a valuable guide to the correct lubrication 
of any modern car. A practical chart for all interested in motov 
car maintenance. (34x38.) Price, 35 cents 

; While "each" of the above five charts are complete, the set covers aU 
maintenance instructions for the entire automobile. 

Location of Starting and lighting System Faults. 

The most complete chart yet devised, showing all parts of the 

" »ile s ■* ..... - ... 



modern automobile starting, lighting and ignition systems, giving in* 
structions for systematic location of all faults in wiring, lamps, 
motor or generator, switches and all other units. Invaluable to 
motorists, chauffeurs and repairmen. Size 24 x 38 inches. 

Price, 35 cents 

Location of Ford Engine Troubles Made Easy. 

An enlarged and revised chart showing clear sectional view* 



depicting all portions of the Ford power plant and auxiliary 
groups. It outlines clearly all parts of the engine, fuel sui " 
systems, ignition group and cooling system, that are apt to 1 
trouble, detailing all derangements that are liable to make an en 



groups. It outlines clearly all .parts of the engine, fuel supply 

tiling all derangements that are liable to make an c 

e power, start hard, or work irregularly. This chart sim 

location of all engine faults, and includes instructions for locating Ford 



systems, ignition group and cooling system, that are apt to l 
trouble, detailing all derangements that are liable to make an engine 
lose power, start hard, or work irregularly. This chart simplifies 



electric starter troubles. Size 25 x 38 inches. Price, 35 cents 

Location of Motorcycle Troubles Made Easy. 

This chart simplifies location of all power-plant troubles and 
will prove of value to all who have to do with the operation, repair 
or sale of motorcycles. No details omitted. Size 20 x 30 inches. 

Price, 35 cents 



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AVIATION 
A B C of Aviation. 

By Catt. V. W. Pag*. This book describes tbe basic prin- 
ciples of aviation, tells bow a balloon or dirigible is made 
and why it floats in the air. Describes how an airplane flies. 
It shows in detail the different parts of an airplane, what 
ther are and what they do. Describes all types of airplanes 
and how they differ in construction; as well as detailing the 
advantages and disadvantages of different types of aircraft. 
It includes a complete dictionary of aviation terms and clear 
drawings of leading airplanes. The reader will find simple 
instructions for unpacking, setting up and rigging airplanes. 
A full description of airplane control principles is given and 
methods of flying are discussed at length. 

This book answers every question one can ask about mod- 
ern aircraft, their construction and operation. 275 pages* 
130 specially made illustrations with 7 plates. Price, fTfifJ 

Aviation Engines — Design; Construction; Repair. 

By Lieut. Victok W. Pace, Aviation Section, S.CU.S.R. 
The matter is logically arranged; all descriptive matter is 
simply expressed and copiously illustrated, so that anyone 
can understand airplane engine operation and repair even if 
without previous mechanical training. This work is inval- 
uable for anyone desiring to become an aviator or aviation 
mechanician. 576 pages, 253 illustrations. Price, S3.0* 

Aviation Chart. 

By Lieut. Victoe W. Page. A large chart outlining all 
parts of a typical airplane power plant, showing the points 
where trouble is apt to occur and suggesting remedies fbr 
the common defects. Intended especially for aviators and 
aviation mechanics on school and field duty. 

Price* 35 centn 

Applied Aerodynamics. 

By G. P. Thompsok. This is a scientific and mathematical 
treatise that has a special appeal to the student and engineer 
who are seeking exact information on the aerodynamics of 
heavier-than-air craft and data on airplane design testing. 
This book gives an up-to-date presentation of the existing 
state of Aeronautical Science. In addition to a very full 
discussion of the qualities which determine the speed and rate 
of climb of an aeroplane and the method by which they can 
be calculated, special attention is paid to stability — a problem 
now fairly well understood, and to controllability— our knowl- 
edge of which is at present in a much more elementary state. 
Attention is directed to the numerous directions in which 
further information is required, especially in the form of 
full-scale experiments. 3l2 pages (7 x 10). Illustrated with 
over 142 Diagrams and Graphic Charts. Price, S12.50 

Glossary of Aviation Terms — English-French; 
French-English. 

A complete glossary of practically all terms used in avia- 
tion, having lists in both French and English with equivalents 
in either language compiled by Victoe W. Page and Paul 
Montariol. Prlce t S1.00 



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BRAZING AND SOLDERING 

1 r 

Brazing and Soldering. 

By Jambs F. Hobakt. The only book that shows you just 
how to handle any job of brazing or soldering that comes 
along; it tells ycu what mixture to use, how to make a 
furnace if you need one. Full of valuable kinks. The fifth 
edition of this book has just been published, and to it much 
new matter and a large number of tested formulas for all 
kinds of solders and fluxes have been added. 3" 



Soldering and Brazing. 

By Raymond Francis Yates. This treatise gives all the 
necessary "kinks" that will enable one to accomplish suc- 
cessful soldering. If a mechanic has not succeeded in his 
soldering, this book may tell him just what he needs to 

?roduce good work — something that he may heretofore have 
orgotten. Price, 75 cents 

CHARTS 



Modern Submarine Chart— With 200 Parts Num- 
bered and Named. 

A cross-section view, showing clearly and distinctly all the 
interior of a submarine of the latest type. No details 
omitted — everything is accurate and to scale. This chart is 
really an encyclopedia of a submarine. Price, 85 cents 

Box Car Chart 

A chart showing the anatomy of a box car, having every part 
of the car numbered and its proper name given in a refer- 
ence list. Price, 35 cents 

Gondola Car Chart. 

A chart showing the anatomy of a gondola car, having every 
part of the car numbered and its proper reference name given 
in a reference list. Price, 35 cents 

Passenger Car Chart. 

A chart showing the anatomy of a passenger car, having 
every part of the car numbered and its proper name given 
in a reference list. Price, 35 cents; 

Steel Hopper Bottom Coal Car. 

A chart showing the anatomy of a steel hooper bottom coal 
car, having every part of the car numbered and its proper 
name given in a reference list. Price, 35 cents 

Tractive Power Chart. 

A chart whereby you can find the tractive power or drawbar 
pull of any locomotive without, making a figure. Shows what 
cylinders are equal, how driving wheels and steam pressure 
affect the power. What sized engine you need to exert a 
given drawbar pull or anything you desire in this line. 

Price, 50 cents 



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Horse-power Chart 

Shows the horse-power of any stationary engine without 
calculation. No matter what the cylinder diameter of stroke, 
the steam pressure or cut-off, the revolutions, or whether 
condensing or non-condensing, it's all there. Easy to use. 
accurate and saves time and calculations. Especially useful 
to engineers and designers. Price* 60 cents 

Boiler Room Chart. 

By George L. Fowler. A chart — size 14 x 28 inches — show- 
ing in isometric perspective the mechanisms belonging in a 
modern boiler room. This chart is really a dictionary of 
the boiler room — the names of more than 200 parts being 
given. Price, 85 cents 

CHEMISTRY 



How to Make and Use a Small Chemical Labo- 
ratory. 

By Raymond Francis Yates. The treatise covers all of the 
essentials of elementary chemistry. The law of definite pro- 
portions, solutions, crystalloids, colloids, electrolysis, etc., are 
explained. The second part of the book is devoted to chemi- 
cal and electro-chemical experiments. Only those experi- 
ments that will tend to broaden the reader's knowledge of 
chemistry in general have been chosen. Price, 75 cents 

COKE 



Coke — Modern Coking Practice, Including An- 
alysis of Materials and Products. 

By J. E. Christopher and T. H. Byrom. This, the standard 
work on the subject, has just been revised and is now issued 
in two volumes. It is a practical work for those engaged in 
Coke manufacture and the recovery of By-products. Fully 
illustrated with folding plates. Among the chapters contained 
in Volume I are: Introduction; Classification of Fuels; Im- 
purities of Coals; Coal Washing; Sampling and Valuation of 
Coals, etc. ; Chlorine Power of Fuels; History of Coke Man- 
ufacture; Developments in Coke Oven Design; Recent Types 
of Coke Ovens; Mechanical Appliances at Coke Ovens; Chem- 
ical and Physical Examination of Coke. Volume II covers 
By-products. Each volume is fully illustrated, with folding 
plates. Price, $3.00 per volume 

COMPRESSED AIR 



Compressed Air in All Its Applications. 

By Gardner D. Hiscox. This is the most complete book on 
the subject of air that has ever been issued, and its thirty-five 
chapters include about every phase of the subject one can 
think of. It may be called an encyclopedia of compressed 
air. It is written by an expert, who, in its 665 pages, has 
dealt with the subject in a comprehensive manner, no phase 
of it being omitted. Over 500 illustrations. Fifth Edition, 
revised and enlarged. Cloth bound. Price* S&OO 

10 



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CONCRETE 
Concrete Wall Forms. 

By A. A. Houghton. A n«w automatic wall damp, is illus- 
trated with working drawings. Other types of wall forms, 
clamps, separators, etc., are also illustrated and explained. 

Price, 75 cent* 

Concrete Floors and Sidewalks. 

By A. A. Houghton. The molds for molding squares, hex- 
agonal and many other styles of mosaic floor and sidewalk 
blocks are fully illustrated and explained. 

Price, 75 cents 

Practical Concrete Silo Construction. 

By A. A. Houghton. Complete working drawings and speci- 
fications are given for several styles of concrete silos, with 
illustrations of molds for monolithic and block silos. The 
tables, data, and information presented in this book are of 
the utmost value in planning and constructing all forms 
of concrete silos. Price, 78 cents 

Molding Concrete Bath Tubs, Aquariums and 
Natatoriums. 

By A. A. Houghton. Simple molds and instruction are 
given for molding different styles of concrete bath tubs, 
swimming pools, etc. Price, 75 cents 

Molding Concrete Chimneys, Slate and Roof 
. Tiles. 

By A. A. Houghton. The manufacture of all types of con- 
crete slate and roof tile is fully treated. Valuable data on 
all forms of reinforced concrete roofs are contained within 
its pages. The construction of concrete chimneys by block 
and monolithic systems is fully illustrated and described. 
A number of ornamental designs of chimney construction 
with molds are shown in this valuable treatise. 

Price, 75 cents 

Molding and Curing Ornamental Concrete. 

By A. A. Houghton. The proper proportions of cement 
and aggregates for various finishes, also the methods of thor- 
oughly mixing and placing in the molds, are fully treated. 
An exhaustive treatise on this subject that every concrete 
worker will find of daily use and value. Price, 75 cents 

Concrete Monuments, Mausoleums and Burial 
Vaults. 

By A. A. Houghton. The molding of concrete monuments 
to imitate the most expensive cut stone is explained in this 
treatise, with working drawings of easily built molds. Cut- 
ting inscriptions and designs is also fully treated. 

Price, 75 cents 

Concrete Bridges, Culverts and Sewers. 

B]r A. A. Houghton. A number of ornamental concrete 
bridges with illustrations of molds are given. A collapsible 
center of core for bridges, culverts and sewers is fully illus- 
trated with detailed instructions for building. 

Price, 75 cents 

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Constructing Concrete Porches. 

By A. A. Houghton. A number of designs with working 
drawings of molds are fully explained so any one can easily 
construct different styles of ornamental concrete porches 
without the purchase of expensive molds. 

Price, 75 cent* 

Molding Concrete Flower Pots, Boxes, Jardi- 
nieres, Etc. 

By A. A. Houghton. The molds for producing many origi- 
nal designs of flower pots, urns, flower boxes, jardinieres, 
etc., are fully illustrated and explained, so the worker can 
easily construct and operate same. Price, 75 cent* 

Molding Concrete Fountains and Lawn Orna- 
ments. 

By A. A. Houghton. The molding of a number of designs 
of lawn seats, curbing, hitching posts, pergolas, sun dials and 
other forms of orgamental concrete, for the ornamentation 
of lawns and gardens, is fully illustrated and described. 

Price, 75 cents 

Concrete on the Farm and in the Shop. 

By H. Colvin Campbell. Among the subjects treated are: 
Principles of reinforcing; methods of protecting concrete so 
as to insure proper hardening; home-made mixers; mixing 
by hand and machine; form construction, described ana 
illustrated by drawings and photographs; construction of 
concrete walls and fences; concrete fence posts; concrete 
gate posts; corner posts; clothes line posts; grape arbor 
posts; tanks; troughs; cisterns; hog wallows; feeding floors 
and barnyard pavements; foundations; well curbs and plat- 
forms; indoor floors; sidewalks; steps; concrete hotbeds and 
cold frames; concrete slab roofs; walls for buildings; repair- 
ing leaks in tanks and cisterns; and all topics associated with 
these subjects as bearing upon securing the best results from 
concrete are dwelt upon at sufficient length in plain every-day 
English so that the inexperienced person desiring to under- 
take a piece of concrete construction can, by following the 
directions set forth in this book, secure 100 per cent success 
every time. 150 pages, 51 illustrations. Price* 91*00 

Concrete From Sand Molds. 

By A. A. Houghton. A practical work treating on a proc- 
ess which has heretofore been held as a trade secret by the 
few who possessed it, and which will successfully mold every 
and any class of ornamental concrete work. The process 
of molding concrete with sand molds is of the utmost practi- 
cal value, possessing the manifold advantages of a low cost 
of molds, the ease and rapidity of operation, perfect details 
to all ornamental designs, density and increased strength 
of the concrete, perfect curing of the work without attention 
and the easy removal of the molds regardless of any under- 
cutting the design may have. 192 pages. Fullv illustrated. 
Cloth. Price, S2.00 

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Ornamental Concrete Without Molds. 

By A. A. Houghton. The process for making ornamental 
concrete without molds has long been held as a secret; and 
now, for the first time, this process is given to the public 
The book reveals the secret and is the only book published 
which explains a simple, practical method whereby the con- 
crete worker is enabled, by employing wood and metal tem- 
plates of different designs, to mold or model in concrete 
any cornice, archivolt, column, pedestal, base cap. urn or 
pier in a monolithic form — right upon the job. These may 
be molded in units or blocks, and then built up to suit the 
specifications demanded. This work is fully illustrated, with 
detailed engravings. Cloth. Price, $2.00 

Popular Handbook for Cement and Concrete 
Users. 

By Myron H. Lewis. Everything of value to the concrete 
user is contained, including kinds of cement employed in 
construction, concrete architecture, inspection ana testing, 
waterproofing, coloring and painting, rules tables, working 
and cost data. The book comprises thirty-three chapters. 'A 
valuable addition to the library of every cement and concrete 
user. Cloth, 430 pages, 126 illustrations. Price, $3.00 

Waterproofing Concrete. 

By Myron H. Lewis. Modern methods of waterproofing 
concrete and other structures. A condensed statement of the 
principles, rules and precautions to be observed in water- 
proofing and damp-proofing structures and structural mate- 
rials, raper binding. Illustrated. Second Edition. 

Price* 75 cents 



DIES— METAL WORK 



Dies; Their Construction and Use for the Modern 
Working of Sheet Metals. 

By J. V. Woodwoeth. A new book by a practical man, for 
those who wish to know the latest practice in the working 
of sheet metals. It shows how dies are designed, made and 
used, and those who are engaged in this line of work can 
secure many valuable suggestions. Sixth revised edition. 
525 Illustrations, 394 pages. Cloth. Price, $&50 

Punches, Dies and Tools for Manufacturing in 
Presses. 

By J. V. Woodwoeth. An encyclopedia of die-making, 
punch-making, die-sinking, sheet-metal working, and making 
of special tools, subpresses, devices and mechanical combina- 
tions for punching, cutting, bending, forming, piercing, draw- 
ing, compressing, and assembling sheet-metal parts and also 
articles of other materials in machine tools. This is a dis- 
tinct work from the author's book entitled "Dies; Their 
Construction and Use." 500 pages, 700 engravings. Second 
edition. Cloth. Price, $4£0 

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DICTIONARIES 

Standard Electrical Dictionary. 

By Prof. T. O'Coko* Sloans. Just issued an entirely new 
edition brought up to date and greatly enlarged — as a refer- 
ence book this work is beyond comparison, as it contains 
oyer 700 pages, nearly 500 illustrations, and definitions of 
about 6,000 distinct words, terms and phrases. The defini- 
tions are terse and concise and include every term used in 
electrical science. 767 pages, 477 illustrations. (See page 
19 for fuller description.) Price, |M 

DRAWING-SKETCHING PAPER 
A Course in Mechanical Drawing. 

By Louis Rouillion. The author has written a most prac- 
tical book on the subject of Mechanical Drafting. It fully 
explains the art of Drawing, Lettering and Dimensioning. 
It is, by far, the most practical book ever published on 
this subject, for use in day and evening schools, and more 
especially adapted for the teacher and for self instruction. 
Fifteenth edition, revised and enlarged. Fully illustrated. 
Oblong. Price, $1.00 

Linear Perspective Self-Taught 

By Herman T. C Kkaus. This work gives the theory and 
practice of linear perspective, as used in architectural engi- 
neering and mechanical drawings. The arrangement of 
the book is good: the plate is on the left hand, while the 
descriptive text follows on the opposite page, so as to be 
readily^ referred to. A self-explanatory linear perspective 
chart is included in the second revised edition. Cloth. 

Price, $8.00 

Self-Taught Mechanical Drawing and Elementary 
Machine Design. 

By F. L. Sylvester, M.E., Draftsman, with additions by 
Erik Oberg, associate editor of "Machinery." A practical 
elementary treatise on Mechanical Drawing and Machine De- 
sign, comprising the first principles of geometric and mechan- 
ical drawing, workshop mathematics, mechanics, strength of 
materials, and the calculation and design of machine details, 
compiled for the use of practical mechanics and young drafts- 
men. 330 pages, 215 engravings. Cloth. Price, 0&5O 

A New Sketching Paper. 

A new specially ruled paper to enable you to make sketches 
or drawings in isometric perspective without any figuring or 
fussing. It is being used for shop details as well as for 
assembly drawings, as it makes one sketch do the work of 
three, and no workman can help seeing just what is wanted. 
In three sizes of pads. Pads of 40 sheets, 6x9 inches. 
Price, 40c.; 9 x 12 inches, Price. 75c > 12 by 18 inches, 
Price, fl^O. 

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Practical Perspective. 

By Richards and Colvin. Shows just bow to make all kinds 
of mechanical drawings in the only practical perspective 
isometric. Makes everything plain so that any mechanic can 
understand a sketch or drawing in this way. Saves time in 
the drawing room and mistakes in the shops. Contains prac- 
tical examples of various classes of work. Third edition. 
Limp cloth. Price, 75 cents 

ELECTRICITY 



Arithmetic of Electricity. 

By Prop. T. O'Conor Sloans. A practical treatise on elec- 
trical calculations of all kinds reduced to a series of rules, 
all of the simplest forms, and involving only ordinary arith- 
metic; each rule illustrated by one or more practical problems 
with detailed solution of each one. This book is classed 
among the most useful works published on the science of 
electricity, covering as it does the mathematics of electricity 
in a manner that will attract the attention of those who are 
not familiar with algebraical formulas. 200 pages. New 
Revised and Enlarged Edition. Price, 91*60 

Commutator Construction. 

By William Baxter, Jr. The business end of dynamo or 
motor of the direct-current type is the commutator. This 
book goes into the designing, building and maintenance of 
commutators, shows how to locate troubles and how to remedy 
them; everyone who fusses with dynamos needs this. Fourth 
edition. Price, 86 cents 

Construction of a Transatlantic Wireless Receiv- 
ing Set 

By L. G. Pacent and T. S. Curtis. A work for the Radio 
student who desires to construct and operate apparatus that 
will permit of the reception of messages from the large 
stations in Europe with an aerial of amateur proportions. 
36 pages. 23 illustrations. Cloth. Price, 86 cents 



Dynamo Building for Amateurs, or How to Con- 
struct a Fifty Watt Dynamo. 

By Arthur Jf. Weed. A practical treatise showing in detail 
the construction of a small dynamo or motor, the entire 
machine work of which can be done on a small foot lathe. 
Dimensioned working drawings are given for each piece of 
machine work, and each operation is clearly described. This 
machine, when used as a dynamo, has an output of fifty 
watts; when used as a motor it will drive a small drill press 
or lathe. It can fee used to drive a sewing machine on any 
and all ordinary work. The book is illustrated with more 
than sixty original engravings showing the actual construction 
of the different parts. Price, $1.00 

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Design Data for Radio Transmitters and Re- 
ceivers. 

By B. M. Sleeper. Far from being a collection of formulas, 
Design Data takes up in proper sequence the problems en- 
countered in planning all types of receiving sets for short, 
medium and long wave work, and spark coil, transformer 
and vacuum tube transmitters operating on 200 meters. 
Tables have been worked out so that values can be found 
without the use of mathematics. Kadio experimenters will 
find here information which will enable them to have the 
most modern and efficient equipment. Price, 75 cents 



Dynamos and Electric Motors and All About 
Them, 

By Edward Teeveet. This volume gives practical directions 
for building a two H. P. Dynamo of the Edison type capable 
of lighting about fifty mazda lamps of the 20-watt size. In 
addition, it gives directions for building two small electric 
motors suitable for running sewing machines. The conclud- 
ing chapter describes the construction of a simple bichromate 
battery adapted for running electric motors. 9o pages. Fully 
illustrated with detail drawings. Cloth.' Price, S1.0S- 



Electric Bells. 

By M. B. Sleeper. A complete treatise for the practical 
worker in installing, operating and testing bell circuits, 
burglar alarms, thermostats and other apparatus used with 
electric bells. Both the electrician and the experimenter will 
find in this book new material which is essential in their 
work. Tools, bells, batteries, unusual circuits, burglar alarms, 
annunciators, systems, thermostats, circuit breakers, time 
alarms, and other apparatus used in bell circuits are de- 
scribed from the standpoints of their application, construc- 
tion, and repair. The detailed instructions for building the 
apparatus will appeal to the experimenter particularly. The 
practical worker will find the chapters on Wiring Calculation 
of Wire Sizes and Magnet Windings, Upkeep of Systems" 
and the Location of Faults of the greatest value in their 
work. 124 pages. Fully illustrated. Price, 75 cent* 



Experimental High Frequency Apparatus, How 
to Make and Use It 

By Thomas Stanley Cuetis. This book tells you how to 
build simply high-frequency coils for experimental purposes 
in the home, school laboratory, or on the small lecture plat- 
form. The book is really a supplement to the same author's 
"High Frequency Apparatus." The experimental side only 
is covered in this volume, which is intended for those who 
want to build small coils giving up to an eighteen-inch spark. 
The apparatus is simple, cheap and perfectly safe, and with 
it some truly startling experiments may be performed. 69 
pages, illustrated. Price, SO cemts 

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Electrician's Handy Book. 

By Prof. T. O'Conok Sloan e. This work has just been 
revised and much enlarged. It is intended for the practical 
electrician who has to make things go. The entire field of 
electricity is covered within its pages. It is a work of the 
most modern practice, written in a clear, comprehensive 
manner, and covers the subject thoroughly, beginning at the 
A B C of the subject, and gradually takes you to the more 
advanced branches of the science. It teaches you just what 
you should know about electricity. A practical work for the 
practical man. Contains forty-eight chapters. 

The publishers consider themselves fortunate in having 
secured the services of such a well and favorably known 
writer as Prof. Sloane, who has with the greatest care com- 
pleted a master work in concise form on this all-important 
subject. 600 engravings. 824 pages, handsomely bound in 
cloth. New Revised Edition. Price, S4.00 



Electricity Simplified. 

By Prop. T. O'Conor Sloane. The object of "Electricity 
Simplified" is to make the subject as plain as possible and 
to show what the modern conception of electricity is; to 
show how two plates of different metals immersed in acid 
can send a message around the globe; to explain how a 
bundle of copper wire rotated by a steam engine can be the 
agent in lighting our streets; to tell what the volt, ohm and 
ampere are, and what high and low tension mean; and to 
answer the questions that perpetually arise in the mind in 
this age of electricity. 218 pages. Illustrated. Fifteenth 
edition. Price, 91*50 



Electric Wiring, Diagrams and Switchboards. 

By Newton Harrison, with additions by Thomas Popp«. 
This is the only complete work issued showing and telling 
you what you should know about direct and alternating cur- 
rent wiring. The work is free from advanced technicalities 
and mathematics, arithmetic being used throughout. It is in 
every respect a handy, well-written, instructive, comprehen- 
sive volume on wiring for the wireman, foreman, contractor 
or electrician. Third revised edition. 315 pages, 130 illus- 
trations. Price, 82.5* 

Experimental Wireless Stations. 

By P. E. Edelman. The theory, design, construction and 
operation is fully treated, including Wireless Telephony, 
Vacuum Tube, and quenched spark systems. The new en- 
larged 1920 edition is just issued and is strictly up to date, 
correct and complete. This book tells how to make apparatus 
to not only hear all telephoned radio messages, but also how . 
to make simple equipment that works for transmission over 
reasonably long distances. Then there is a host of new in- 
formation included. The first and only book to give you 
mil the recent important radio improvements, some of which 
have never before been published. 392 pages. 24 chapters. 
167 illustrations. Price, 93*0# 

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Electric Toy Making, Dynamo Building and 
Electric Motor Construction. 

This work treats of the making at home of electrical toys, 
electrical apparatus, motors, dynamos and instruments in 
general and is designed to Sring within the reach of young 
and old the manufacture of genuine and useful electrical 

Spliances. 210 pages, cloth. Fully illustrated. Twentieth 
ition, enlarged. Price, 91*50 



High Frequency Apparatus, Its Construction and 
Practical Application. 

By Thomas Stanley Curtis. The most comprehensive and 
thorough work on this interesting subject ever produced. 
The book is essentially practical in its treatment and it con- 
stitutes an accurate record of the researches of its author 
over a period of several years, during which time dozens of 
coils were built and experimented with. New revised and 
enlarged edition. Fully illustrated, 269 pages. 

Price, 93,00 

House Wiring. 

By Thomas W. Poppe. Describing and illustrating up-to-date 
methods of installing electric light wiring. Contains just the 
information needed for successful wiring of a building. Fully 
illustrated with diagrams and plans. It solves all wiring 
problems and contains nothing that conflicts with the rulings 
of the National Board of Fire Underwriters. 1920 edition, 
revised and enlarged. Including Direct Current Motor Con- 
nections — Diagrams of series wound motor — and Motor Wir- 
ing. 200 pages, fully illustrated, flexible cloth. 

Price, 91.00 

How to Become a Successful Electrician. 

By Prop. T. O'Conor Sloane. An interesting book from 
cover to cover. Telling in simplest language the surest and 
easiest way to. become a success fnl electrician. The studies 
to be followed, methods of work, field of operation and the 
requirements of the successful electrician are pointed out and 
fully explained. 202 pages. Illustrated. Eighteenth revised 
edition. Cloth. Price, 91.50 



Radio Time Signal Receiver. 

By Austin C. Lescarboura. This new book, "A Radio Time 
Signal Receiver," tells you how to build a simple outfit de- 
signed expressly for the beginner. You can build the out- 
fits in your own workshop and install them for jewelers 
either on a one-payment or a rental basis. The apparatus 
is of such simple design that it may be made by the average 
amateur mechanic possessing a few ordinary tools. 42 pages. 
Paper. Price* 86 cent* 

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Radio Hook-Ups. 

In this book the best circuits for different instruments and 
various purposes have been carefully selected and grouped 
together. All the best circuits for damped and undamped 
wave receiving sets, buzzer, spark coil and transformer send- 
ing equipment, as well as vacuum tube telegraph and tele- 
phone transmitters, wavemeters, vacuum tube measuring in- 
struments, audibility meters, etc., are shown in this book. 

Price, 75 cents 



Standard Electrical Dictionary. 

By Prop. T. O'Cono* Sloans. Just issued an entirely new 
edition brought up to date and greatly enlarged — as a refer- 
ence book this work is beyond comparison, as it contains 
over 700 pages, nearly 500 illustrations, and definitions of 
about 6,000 distinct words, terms and phrases. The defini- 
tions are terse and concise and include every term used in 
electrical science. 

In its arrangement and typography the book is very con- 
venient. The word or term defined is printed in black faced 
type which ' readily catches the eye, wnile the body of the 
page is in smaller but distinct type. The definitions are well 
worded, and so as to be understood by the non-technical 
reader. The general plan is to give an exact, concise defini- 
tion, and then amplify and explain in a more popular way. 
Synonyms are also given, and references to other vords and 
phrases are made. This work is absolutely indispensable to 
all in any way interested in electrical science, from the 
higher electrical expert to the everyday electrical workman. 
In fact, it should t>e in the possession of all who desire to 
keep abreast with the progress of this branch of science. 
New enlarged edition. 767 pages. 477 illustrations. 

Price, $5.0* 



Storage Batteries Simplified. 

By Victor W. PAGfe, M.S.A.E. This is the most thorough 
and authoritative treatise ever published on this subject. It 
is written in easily understandable, non-technical language so 
that anyone may grasp the basic principles of storage bat- 
tery action as well as their practical industrial applications. 
All electric and gasoline automobiles use storage batteries. 
Every automobile repairman, dealer or salesman should have 
a good knowledge of maintenance and repair of these im- 
portant elements of the motor car mechanism. This book 
not only tells how to charge, care for and rebuild storage 
batteries but also outlines all the industrial uses. Learn 
how they run street cars, locomotives and factory trucks. 
Get an understanding of the important functions they per- 
form in submarine boats, isolated lighting plants, railway 
switch and signal systems, marine applications, etc. This 
book tells how they are used in central station standby serv- 
ice, for starting automobile motors and in ignition systems. 
Every practical use of the modern storage battery is out* 
lined in this treatise. 208 pages, fully illustrated. 

Price, $2.0* 



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Telephone Construction, Installation, Wiring, 
Operation and Maintenance. 

By W. H. Raoclifpb and H. C. Cushing. This book gives 
the principles of construction and operation of both' the 
Bell and Independent instruments; approved methods of 
installing and wiring them; the means of protecting them 
from lightning and abnormal currents; their connection - to- 
gether for operation as series or bridging stations; and rules 
for their inspection and maintenance. Line wiring and the 
wiring and operation of special telephone systems are also 
treated. 224 pages. 132 illustrations. Second revised edition. 

Price, $1.50 



Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony Simply Ex- 
plained. 

By Alfred P. Morgan. This is undoubtedly one of the 
most complete and comprehensive treatises on the subject 
ever published, and a close study of its pages will enable 
one to master all the details of the wireless transmission of 
messages. The author has filled a long-felt want and has 
succeeded in furnishing a lucid, comprehensible explanation 
in simple language of the theory and practice of wireless 
telegraphy and telephony. Fourth edition. 154 pages, 156 
engravings. Price, f 1.50 



Wiring a House. 

By Herbert Pratt. Shows a house already built; tells just 
how to start about wiring it; where to begin; what wire to 
use; how to run it according to insurance rules; in fact, just 
the information you need. Directions apply equally to a 
shop. Fourth edition. Price, 85 cents) 



ELECTROPLATING 



The Modern Electroplater. 

By Kenneth M. Coggeshall. This is the most complete and 
practical book on electroplating and allied processes that has 
been published as a text for the student or professional 
plater. It is written in simple language and explains all 
details of electroplating in a concise yet complete manner. 
Full instructions are given for the preparation and finishing 
of the work and formulae and complete directions are in- 
cluded for making all kinds of plating solutions, many of 
these having been trade secrets until published in this in- 
struction manual. Anyone interested in practical plating and 
netal finishing will find this book a valuable guide and com- 



plete manual of the art. 142 illustrations. 276 pages. 



Ice, $8.00 



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GAS AND GASOLINE ENGINES 

4 

Gas, Gasoline and Oil Engines. 

By Gardner D. Hiscox. Revised by Victor W- £agr. . Every 
user of a gas engine needs this book. Simple, instructive and 
right up to date. The only complete work on the subject. 
Tells all about internal combustion engineering, treating ex- 
haustively on the design, construction and practical applica- 
tion of all forms of gas, gasoline, kerosene and crude pe- 
troleum-oil engines. Describes minutely all auxiliary systems, 
such as lubrication, carburetion and ignition. Considers the 
theory and management of all forms of explosive motors for 
stationary and marine work, automobiles, aeroplanes and 
motorcycles. Includes also Producer Gas and Its Production. 
Invaluable instructions for all students, gas-engine owners, 
gas-engineers, patent experts, designers, mechanics, drafts- 
men and all having to do with the modern power. Illustrated 
j)y over 400 engravings, many specially made from engineer- 
ing drawings, all in correct proportion. 640 octavo pages 
and 435 engravings. Price, $3.00 



Gasoline Engines: Their Operation, Use and Care. 

By A. Hyatt Vbrrill. A comprehensive, simple and prac- 
tical work, treating of gasoline engines for stationary, marine 
or vehicle use; their construction, design, management, care, 
operation, repair, installation and troubles. A complete glos- 
sary of technical terms and an alphabetically arranged table 
of troubles and symptoms form a most valuable and unique 
feature of the book. S l / 4 x 7 l A. Cloth. 275 pages, 152 illus- 
trations. Price, $2.00 



Gas Engine Construction. 

Or How to Build a Half-Horse-pqwer Gas Engine. By 
Parskll and Weed. A practical treatise describing the theory 
and principles of the action of gas engines of various types* 
and the design and construction of a half-horse-power gas 
engine, with illustrations of the work in actual progress, 
together with dimensioned working drawings giving clearly 
the sizes of the various details. 300 pages. Third edition. 
Cloth. Price, S3.00 

The Gasoline Engine on the Farm: Its Operation, 
Repair and Uses. 

By Xbno W. Putnam. A useful and practical treatise on 
the modern gasoline and kerosene engine, its construction, 
management, repair and the many uses to which it can be 
applied in present-day farm life. It considers all the various 
household, shop and field uses of this up-to-date motor and 
includes chapters on engine installation, power transmission 
and the best arrangement of the power plant in reference 
to the work. 5tf x 7& Cloth. 527 pages, ,1 79 illustra- 
tions. Price, 98.0ft 

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How to Run and Install Two- and Four-Cycle 
Marine, Gasoline Engines. 

Bjy C. Vow Culin. The object of this little book is to fur- 
nish a pocket instructor for the beginner, the busy man who 
uses an engine for pleasure or profit, but who does not have 
the time or inclination for a technical book, but simply to 
thoroughly understand how to properly operate, install and 
care for his own engine. Pocket size. Paper binding. 

Price, 25 cent* 



GEARING AND CAMS 



Bevel Gear Tables. 

By D. Ac. Engstrom. No one who has to do with bevel 
gears in any way. should be without this book. The designer 
and draftsman will find it a great convenience, while to the 
machinist who turns up the blanks or cuts the teeth it is 
invaluable, as all needed dimensions are given and no fancy 
figuring need be done. Third edition. Cloth. Price, 81.50 

Change Gear Devices. 

By Oscar E. Prurigo. A book for every designer, draftsman 
end mechanic who is interested in feed changes for any kind 
of machines. This shows what has been done and how. 
Gives plans, patents and all information that you need. Saves 
hunting through patent records and reinventing old ideas. A 
standard work of reference. Third edition. Price, 81.50 

Drafting of Cams. 

By Louis Rouillion. The laying out of cams is a serious 
problem unless you know how to go at it right. This puts 
you on the right road for practically any kind of cam you 
are likely to run up against. Third edition. 

Price* 85 cent* 



HYDRAULICS 



Hydraulic Engineering. 

By Gardner D. Hiscox. A treatise on the properties, power, 
and resources of water for all purposes. Including the meas- 
urements of streams; the flow of water in pipes or conduits; 
the horse-power of falling water; turbine and impact water- 
wheels; wave-motors, centrifugal, reciprocating and air-lift 
pumos. With 300 figures and diagrams ana 36 practical 
tables. 320 pages. Price, S4.50 

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ICE AND REFRIGERATION 



Pocketbook of Refrigeration and Ice Making. 

By A. J. Wallis-Taylor. This is one of the latest and 
most comprehensive reference books published on the subject 
of refrigeration and cold storage. It explains the properties 
and refrigerating effect of the different fluids in use, the 
management of refrigerating machinery and the construction 
and insulation of cold rooms with their required pipe surface 
for different degrees of cold; freezing mixtures and non- 
freezing brines, temperatures of cold rooms for all kinds of 
provisions, cold storage charges for all classes of goods, ice 
making and storage of ice, data and memoranda for constant 
reference by refrigerating engineers, with nearly one hundred 
tables containing valuable references to every fact and con- 
dition required in the installment and operation of a refriger- 
ating plant. New edition just published. Price* $2.00 



INVENTION— PATENTS 



Inventor's Manual* How to Make a Patent Pay. 

This is a book designed as a guide to inventors in perfecting 
their inventions, talcing out their patents, and disposing of 
them. It is not in any sense a Patent Solicitor's circular nor 
a Patent Broker's advertisement. No advertisements of any 
description appear in the work. It is a book containing a 
quarter of a century's experience of a successful inventor, 
together with notes based upon the experience of many other 
inventors. Revised and enlarged second edition. Nearly 150 
pages. Illustrated. Price, $1.50 



KNOTS 



Knots, Splices and Rope Work. 

By A. Hyatt Verrill. This is a practical book giving com- 
plete and simple directions for making all the most useful 
and ornamental knots in common use, with chapters on 
Splicing, Pointing, Seizing, Serving, etc. This book is fully 
illustrated with 154 original engravings, which show how 
each knot, tie or splice is formed, and its appearance when 
finished. The book will be found of the greatest value to 
campers, yachtsmen, travelers or Boy Scouts; in fact, to 
anyone having occasion to use or handle rope or knots for 
any purpose. The book is thoroughly reliable and practical, 
and is not only a guide but a teacher. It is the standard 
work on the subject. Second edition revised. 104 pages, 154 
original engravings. Price, $1.00 

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LATHE WORK 
Lathe Work for Beginners. 

By Raymond F. Yates. A book for those interested in 
lathe work which opens up a new world for the amateur 
worker in wood and metal. It will prove a valuable aid 
also to the young machinist or apprentice who intends to 
make lathe work his occupation. It foresees all his questions, 
and its answers go straight to the heart of his difficulty. 
This book shows the reader how to set up his lathe, explains 
the various tools and the correct way of using them, and 
makes plain the different lathe attachments and their 
applications. The lessons range from the turning of a brass 
cup to the completion of a model rapid-fire gun, and milling, 
gear-cutting, thread-cutting, sawing and grinding are set forth 
with refreshing simplicity. Among the chapters contained 
are: I Choosing a Lathe. II Setting up and Driving the 
Lathe. Ill The Lathe and Its Parts. IV Lathe Attach- 
ments and Their Use. V Measuring Tools and Their Use. 
VI A Lesson in Metal Turning. VII Advanced Lathe 
Work. VIII Screw Cutting. IX Wood Turning. X Metal 
Spinning. XI Building an Amateurs Metal Turning Lathe. 
XII Building a Simple Wood Turning Lathe. XIII A 
Model Rapid -Fire Naval Gun. 167 illustrations. $2.50 

The Lathe — Its Design, Construction and Opera- 
tion, With Practical Examples of Lathe Work. 

By Oscar E. Pbrrigo. A new revised edition, and the only 
complete ( American work on the subject. Lathe history and 
the relations of the lathe to manufacturing are given; also 
a description of the various devices for feeds and thread 
cutting mechanisms from early efforts in this direction to the 
present time. Lathe design is thoroughly discussed, includ- 
ing back gearing, driving cones, thread-cutting gears, and all 
the essential elements of the modern lathe. The classification 
of lathes is taken up, giving the essential differences of the 
several types of lathes, including, as is usually understood, 
engine lathes, bench lathes, speed lathes, forge lathes, gap 
lathes, pulley lathes, forming lathes, multiple-spindle lathes, 
rapid-reduction lathes, precision lathes, turret lathes, special 
lathes, electrically-driven lathes, etc. In addition to the com- 
plete exposition on construction and design, much practical 
matter on lathe installation,, care and operation has been in* 
corporated in the enlarged new edition. All kinds of lathe 
attachments for drilling, milling, etc., are described and 
complete instructions are given to enable the novice ma- 
chinist to grasp the art of lathe operation as well as the 
principles involved in design. A number of difficult machin- 
ing operations are described at length and illustrated. The 
new edition has 469 pages and 341 illustrations. 

Price, 93.00 

Turning and Boring Tapers. 

By Frbd H. Colvin. There are two ways to turn tapers: 
the right way and one other. This treatise has to do with 
the right way; it tells you how to start the work properly, 
how to set the lathe, what tools to use and how to use them, 
end forty and one other little things that you should follow. 
Fourth edition. Price* 85 ee»*« 

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LIQUID AIR 
Liquid Air and the Liquefaction of Oases. 

By T. O'Conor Sloan*. The third revised edition of thfo 
book has just been issued. Much new material is added to 
it; and the all important uses of liquid air and gas processes 
in modern industry, in the production especially of nitrogen 
compounds, are described. The book gives the history of the 
theory, discovery and manufacture of Liquid Air, and con- 
tains an illustrated description of all the experiments that 
have excited the wonder of audiences all over the country. 
It shows how liquid air, like water, is carried hundreds of 
miles and is handled in open buckets. It tells what may be 
expected from it in the near future. A book that renders 
simple one of the most perplexing chemical problems of the 
century. Startling developments illustrated by actual experi- 
ments. It is not only a work of scientific interest and 
authority, but is intended for the general reader, being 
written in a popular style — easily understood by everyone* 
394 pages, fully illustrated. New Edition. Price, $3.00 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Air-Brake Catechism. 

By Robert H. Blackall. This book is a standard text book. 
It is the only practical and complete work published. Treats 
on the equipment manufactured by the Westinghouse Air 
Brake Company, including the E-T Locomotive Brake Equip- 
ment, the K (Quick Service) Triple Valve for freight serv- 
ice; the L High Speed Triple Valve; the P-C Passenger 
Brake Equipment, and the Cross Compound Pump. The 
operation of all parts of the apparatus is explained in detail 
and a practical way of locating their peculiarities and rem- 
edying their defects is given. Endorsed and used by air- 
brake instructors and examiners on nearly every railroad 
in the United States. Twenty-seventh edition. 411 pages, 
fully illustrated with folding plates and diagrams. New 
edition. Price, $2.50 

Westinghouse E. T. Air-Brake Instruction Pock- 
etbook Catechism. 

By Wm. W. Wood, Air-Brake Instructor. A practical work 
containing examination questions and answers on the E. T. 
Equipment. Covering what the E. T. Brake is. How it 
should be operated. What to do when defective. Not a 
question can be asked of the engineman up for promotion 
on either the No. 5 or the No. 6 E. T. equipment that is not 
asked and answered in the book. If you want to thoroughly 
understand the E. T. equipment get a copy of this book. It 
covers every detail. Makes lir-brake troubles and examina- 
tions easy. Fully illustrated with colored plates, showing 
various pressures. Some of these plates are printed in 16 
different colors. This is the standard Book on the E. T. 
Air-Brake. Cloth. Revised and enlarged edition. 

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Link Motions, Valves and Valve Setting. 

By Fiid H. Col vi n, Associate Editor of "American Ma- 
chinist." A handy book that clears up the mysteries of valve 
setting. Shows the different valve gears in use, how they 
work, and why. Piston and slide valves of different types 
ttre illustrated and explained. A book that every railroad 
man in the motive-power department ought to have. Fully 
illustrated. New revised edition recently published. 

Price, 76 cent* 

Train Rule Examinations Made Easy. 

By G. E. Colling wood. This is the only practical work on 
train rules in print. Every detail is covered, and puzzling 
points are explained in simple, comprehensive language, 
making it a practical treatise for the train dispatcher, en- 
gineman, train man and all others who have to do with the 
movements of trains. Contains complete and reliable infor- 
mation of the Standard Code of Train Rules for single track. 
Shows signals in colors, as used on the different roads. Ex- 
plains fully the practical application of train orders, giving 
a clear and definite understanding of all orders which may 
be used. Second edition revised. 234 pages. Fully illus- 
trated, with train signals in colors. Price, 81.50 

Locomotive Breakdowns and Their Remedies. 

By Geo. L. Fowler. Revised by Wm. W. Wood, Air-Brake 
Instructor. Pocket edition. It is out of the question to try 
and tell you about every subject that is covered in this 
pocket edition of Locomotive Breakdowns. Just imagine all 
the common troubles that an engineer may expect to happen 
some time, and then add all of the unexpected ones, troubles 
that could occur, but that you had never thought about, and 
you will find that they are all treated with the very best 
methods of repair. Walschaert Locomotive Valve Gear 
Troubles, Electric Headlight Troubles, as well as Questions 
and Answers on the Air Brake, are all included. Eighth 
edition. 294 pages. Fully illustrated. Price, S1.50 

Practical Instructor and Reference Book for 
Locomotive Firemen and Engineers. 

By Chas. F. Lock hart. An entirely new book on the loco- 
motive. It appeals to every railroad man, as it tells him how 
things are done and the right way to do them. Written by 
a man who has had years of practical experience in locomo- 
tive shops and on the road firing and running. The infor- 
mation given in this book cannot be found in any other 
similar treatise. Eight hundred and fifty-one questions with 
their answers are included, which will prove specially helpful 
to those preparing for examination. 362 pages, 88 illustra- 
tions. Cloth. Price, S&50 

Diary of a Round-House Foreman. 

By T. S. Reilly. This is the greatest book of railroad ex- 
periences ever published. Containing a fund of information 
and suggestions along the line of handling men, organizing, 
etc, that one cannot afford to miss. 176 pages. $1*25 

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Locomotive Boiler Construction. 

♦ 

By Frank A. Klbinhans. The only book showing how loco- 
motive boilers are built in modern shops. Shows all types of 
boilers used; gives details of construction; practical facts, 
such as life of riveting punches and dies, work done per 
day, allowance for bending and flanging sheets and other 
data that means dollars to any railroad man. Second edition. 
451 pages, 334 illustrations. Six folding plates. Cloth. 

Price, 9M0 



Prevention of Railroad Accidents, or Safety in 
Railroading. 

By George Brads haw. This book is a heart-to-heart talk 
with railroad employees, dealing with facts, not theories, and 
showing the men in tne ranks from everyday experience, 
how accidents occur and how they may be avoided. The 
book is illustrated with seventy original photographs and 
drawings showing the safe and unsafe methods of work. No 
visionary schemes, no ideal pictures. Just plain facts and 
practical suggestions are given. Every railroad employee 
who reads the book is a better and safer man to have in 
railroad service. It gives just the information which will be 
the means of preventing many injuries and deaths. All 
railroad employees should procure a copy, read it, and do 
their part in preventing accidents. 169 pages. Pocket size. 
Fully illustrated. Price, SO cento 



Combustion of Coal and the Prevention of Smoke. 

By Wm. M. Bars. To be a success a fireman must be "Light 
on Coal." He must keep his fire in good condition, and 
prevent, as far as possible, the smoke nuisance. To do this, 
he should know how coal burns, how smoke is formed and 
the proper burning of fuel to obtain the best results. He 
can learn this, and more too, from Barr's "Combustion of 
Coal." It is an absolute authority on all questions relating 
to the firing of a locomotive. Fifth edition. Nearly 350 
pages, fully illustrated. Price, 91*50 



tWabchaert Locomotive Valve Gear. 

By Wm. W. Wood. If you would thoroughly understand 
the Walschaert Valve Gear, you should possess a copy of 
this book. The author divides the subject into four divisions. 
•s follows: I. Analysis of the gear. II. Designing and 
erection of the gear. III. Advantages of the gear. IV. 
Questions and answers relating to the Walschaert Valve Gear. 
This book is specially valuable to those preparing for pro- 
motion. Third 1920 edition, revised and enlarged. 245 
pages, fully illustrated. Cloth. Price, 9&50 

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Locomotive Engine Running and Management. 

By Angus Sinclair, M.E., formerly Editor "Railway and 
Locomotive Engineering." Shows how to manage a loco- 
motive, describes its parts and gives instructions for the 
^x*T^™/ epairs °* locomotives and their connections. 
CONTENTS:— -Engineers and Their Duties. How Engineers 
Are Made. Inspection of the Locomotive. Getting Ready 
for the Road. Running a Fast Freight Train. Getting Up 
the Hill. Finishing the Trip. Hard-Steaming Engines. 
Shortness of Water. Boilers and Fireboxes. Accidents. 
Connecting-Rods, Side-Rods and Wedges. Valve Motion. 
Setting the Valves. The Westinghouse Air-Brake. Trac- 
tive Power and Train Resistance. Draft Appliances. Com- 
bustion. Steam and Motive-Power. Sight-Feed. Lubri- 
cators. Examination of Firemen for Promotion. Revised 
Twenty-Third Edition, 436 pages, illustrated. Price, $3.00 

Locomotives, Simple, Compound, and Electric. 

By # H. C. Reagan, Locomotive Engineer. Describes the 
design, construction, operation, and repair of every type 
of locomotive. Very fully illustrated. 

CONTENTS:— Locomotive Boiler. Front End. Steam Cyl- 
inders and Connection. Frames, Driving-Boxes, and Spring 
Rigging. Rods and Connections. Valve Gearing. Com- 
pound Locomotive. Indicator-Cards. Superheaters. Injec- 
tors, Brakes and Brake Rigging. Liquid Fuel. Electric 
Locomotives. Apparatus Essential to the Operation of 
Electric Locomotives, Electric Control Systems. Typical 
Electric Engines. Fifth Edition, 932 pages. Price, $3.50 

Practical Locomotive Running and Management. 

By W. Geo. Knight. A practical book for the railroad man, 
specially helpful to those preparing for examination. The 
new second revised edition of this work deals with the 
principles of locomotive engineering in a practical manner, 
and explains fully and clearly those subjects that are usually 
difficult to understand by men who actually operate and 
maintain locomotives. The book is profusely illustrated arid 
includes many reproductions of drawings and models used 
by the author as an instructor for the purposes of making 
clear the principles that underlie the construction and opera- 
tion of the various parts of the locomotive engine. The 
simplicity in which these hard problems are treated has 
made the work very popular. Those preparing for an exam- 
ination for locomotive engineer or fireman will find this 
volume most helpful. 541 Pages, 169 illustrations. 

Price, $4.06 

MACHINE SHOP PRACTICE 
Complete Practical Machinist. 

By Joshua Rose. The new, twentieth revised and enlarged 
edition is now ready. This is one of the best-known books 
on machine-shop work, and written for the practical work- 
man in the language of the workshop. It gives full, practi- 
cal instructions on the use of all kinds of metal-working tools* 
both hand and machine, and tells how the work should, be 
properly done. It covers lathe work, vise work, drills ,and 
drilling, taps and dies, hardening and tempering, the, making 
and use of tools, tool grinding, marking out work, machine 
tools, etc. No machinist's library is complete without this 
Tolume. 547 pages, 432 illustrations. Price, $3.00 

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Abrasives and Abrasive Wheels. 

By Fred B. Jacobs. A new book for everyone interested in 
abrasives or grinding. A careful reading of the book will 
not only make mechanics better able to use abrasives intel- 
ligently, but it will also tell the shop superintendent of many 
short cuts and efficiency-increasing kinks. The economic ad- 
vantage in using large grinding wheels are fully explained, 
together with many other things that will tend to give the 
superintendent or workman a keen insight into abrasive en- 
gineering. 340 pages, 174 illustrations. This is an indis- 
. pensable book for every machinist. Price* 93.00 

Machine Shop Arithmetic. 

By Colvin-Chenky. Most popular book for shop men. Shows 
how all shop problems are worked out and "why." Includes 
change gears for cutting any threads: drills, taps; metric 
system of measurements and threads. Used by all classes of 
mechanics and for instruction in Y. M. C. A. and other 
schools. Seventh edition. 131 pages. Price, 75 cents 

"Shop Kinks." 

By Robert Grimshaw. This shows special methods of doing 
work of various kinds, and releasing cost of production. Has 
hints and kinks from some of the largest shops in this coun- 
try and Europe. You are almost sure to find some that apply 
to your work, and in such a way as to save time and trouble. 
393 pages. Fifth edition. Illustrated. Cloth. Price, 03.00 

Home Mechanic's Workshop Companion. 

By Andrew Jackson, Jr. This treatise includes a compila- 
tion of useful suggestions that cannot fail to interest the 
handy man, and while it is not intended for mechanical ex- 
perts or scientists, it will prove to be a veritable store of 
information for anyone who desires to rig up a small shop 
where odd jobs can be carried on. Price, 75 cent* 

Threads and Thread Cutting. 

By Colvin and Stabel. This clears up many of the mysteries 
of thread cutting, such as double and triple threads, internal 
threads, catching threads, use of hobs, etc. Contains a lot 
of useful hints and several tables. Third edition. 35 cents) 

Shop Practice for Home Mechanics. 

By Raymond Francis Yates. A thoroughly practical and 
helpful book prepared especially for those who have had little 
or no experience in shop work. The introduction is given 
over to an elementary explanation of the fundamentals of 
mechanical science. This is followed by several chapters on 
the use of small tools and mechanical measuring instruments. 
Elementary and more advanced lathe work is treated in de- 
tail and directions given for the construction of a number 
of useful show appliances. Drilling and reaming, heat treat- 
ment of tool steel, special lathe operations, pattern making, 
grinding, and grinding operations, home foundry work, etc., 
make up the rest of the volume. The book omits nothing 
that will be of use to those who use tools or to those who 
wish to learn the use of tools. The great number of clear 
engravings add much to the text matter and to the value of 
the volume as a visual instructor. Size 6 z 9. 320 pages. 
309 engravings. New Edition. Price, $3.00 

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THE WHOLE FIELD OF MECHANICAL 

MOVEMENTS IS COVERED BY 

HISCOX'S TWO BOOKS. 



We publish two books by Gardner D. Hiscox that will 
keep you from "inventing" things that have been done be- 
fore and suggest ways of doing things that you have not 
thought of before. Many a man spends time and money 
pondering over some mechanical problem, only to learn, after 
he has solved the problem, that the same thing has been 
accomplished and put in practice by others long before. Time 
and money spent in an effort to accomplish what has al- 
ready been accomplished are time and money lost. The 
whole field of mechanics, every known mechanical movement, 
and practically every device is covered by these two books. 
If the thing you want has been invented, it is illustrated in 
them. If it hasn't been invented, then you'll find in them 
the nearest things to what you want, some movement or 
device that will apply in your case, perhaps; or which will 
give you a key from which to work. No book or set of 
books ever published is of more recti value to the inventor, 
draftsman or practical mechanic than these two volumes. 
Each book sold separately. 

Mechanical Movements, Powers and Devices. 

By Gardner D. Hiscox. This is a collection of 1,890 
engravings of different mechanical motions and appliances, 
accompanied by appropriate text, making it a book of great 
value to the inventor, the draftsman, and to all readers 
with mechanical tastes. The book is divided into eighteen 
sections or chapters, in which the subject-matter is classified 
under the following heads: Mechanical Powers; Transmis- 
sion of Power; Measurement of Power; Steam Power; Air 
Power Appliances; Electric Power and Construction; Navi- 
gation and Roads; Gearing; Motion and Devices; Control- 
ling Motion; Horological; Mining; Mill and Factory Appli- 
ances; Construction and Devices; Drafting Devices; Miscel- 
laneous Devices, etc. Fifteenth edition. 409 octavo pages. 

Price, $4.00 

Mechanical Appliances, Mechanical Movements 
and Novelties of Construction. 

By Gardner D. Hiscox. This is a supplementary volume 
to the one upon mechanical movements. Unlike the first 
volume, which is more elementary in character, this volume 
contains illustrations and descriptions of many combina- 
tions of motions and of mechanical devices and appliances 
found in different lines of machinery, each device being 
shown by a line drawing with a description showing its 
working parts and the method of operation. From the 
multitude of devices described and illustrated might be men- 
tioned, in passing, such items as conveyors and elevators, 
Prony brakes, thermometers, various types of boilers, solar 
engines, oil-fuel burners, condensers, evaporators, Corliss 
and other valve gears, goyernors t gas engines, water motors 
of various descriptions, air ships, # motors and dynamos, 
automobiles and motor bicycles, railway lock signals, car 
Couplers, link and gear motions, ball bearings, breech block 
mechanism for heavy guns, and a large accumulation of 
others of equal importance. 1,000 specially made engravings. 
396 octavo pages. Fourth revised edition. Price, $4.00 

30 



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MACHINE SHOP PRACTICE 



Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment 
and Management 

By Oscar E. Pbrrigo. The only work published that describes 
the Modern Machine Shop or Manufacturing Plant from the 
time the grass is growing on the site intended for it until the 
finished product is shipped. Just the book needed by those 
contemplating the erection of modern shop buildings, the 
rebuilding and reorganization of old ones or the introduction 
of Modern Shop Methods, Time and Cost Systems. It is a 
book written and illustrated by a practical shop man for 
practical shop men who are too busy to read theories and 
Want facts. It is the most complete all-around book of its 
kind ever published. Second edition. 384 pages, 219 original 
and specially-made illustrations. Price, 95.00 



Machine Shop Tools and Shop Practice. 

By W. H. Vandervoort. A work of 555 pages and 673 illus- 
trations, describing in every detail the construction, opera* 
tion and manipulation of both hand and machine tools. In- 
cludes chapters on filing, fitting, and scraping surfaces; on 
drills, reamers, taps, and dies; the lathe and its tools; planers, 
shapers, and their tools; milling machines and cutters; gear 
cutters and gear cutting; drilling machines and drill work; 
grinding machines and their work; hardening and tempering: 
gearing, belting, and transmission machinery; useful data and 
tables. Seventh edition. Cloth. Price, $4*50 

American Tool Making and Interchangeable 
Manufacturing. 

By J. V. Wood worth. In its 500-odd pages the one subject 
only, Tool Making, and whatever relates thereto, is dealt with. 
The work, stands without a rival. It is a complete practical 
treatise on the art of American Tool Making and system of 
interchangeable manufacturing as carried on to-day in the 
United States. In it are described and illustrated all of the 
different types and classes of small tools, fixtures, devices 
and special appliances which are in general use in all ma- 
chine-manufacturing and metal-working establishments where 
economy, capacity and interchangeability in the production 
of machined metal parts are imperative. The science of jig 
making is exhaustively discussed, and particular attention is 
paid to drill jigs, boring, profiling and milling fixtures and 
other devices in which the parts to be machined are located 
and fastened within the contrivances. All of the tools, fix- 
tures and devices illustrated and described have been or are 
used for the actual production of work, such as parts of drill 
presses, lathes, patented machinery, typewriters, electrical ap- 
paratus, mechanical appliances, brass goods, composition parts, 
mold products, sheet metal articles, drop forgings, jewelry. 
watches, medals, coins, etc. Third edition. 535 pages and 
601 specially made engravings. Price* $4.50 

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MARINE ENGINEERING 

The Naval Architect's and Shipbuilder's Pocket- 
book. 

of Formulae, Rules, and Tables, and Marine Engineer's and 
Surveyor's Handy Book of Reference.' By Clement Mack- 
sow and Lloyd Woollakd. The eleventh revised and en- 
larged edition of this most comprehensive work has just been 
issued. It is absolutely indispensable to all engaged in the 
Shipbuilding Industry, as it condenses into a compact form 
all data and formulae that are ordinarily required. The book 
is completely up to date, including among other subjects a 
section on Aeronautics. 750 pages, limp leather binding. 

Price, $6.00 met 

Marine Engines and Boiler3, Their Design and 
Construction. The Standard Book. 

By Dr. G. Bauer, Leslie S. Robertson and S. Bryan Don- 
kin. In the words of Dr. Bauer, the present work owes its 
origin to an oft felt want of a condensed treatise embodying 
the theoretical and practical rules used in designing marine 
engines and boilers. The work is clearly written, thoroughly 
systematic, theoretically sound; while the character of the 
plans, drawings, tables and statistics is without reproach. 
The illustrations are careful reproductions from actual work- 
ing drawings, with some well-executed photographic views of 
completed engines and boilers. 744 pages, 550 illustrations, 
and numerous tables. Price, f 10,00 net 

MANUAL TRAINING 
Economics of Manual Training. 

By Louis Rouillxon. The only book that gives just the in- 
formation needed by all interested in manual training, re- 
garding buildings, equipment and supplies. Shows exactly 
what is needed for all grades of the work from the Kinder- 
garten to the High and Normal School. Gives itemized lists 
of everything needed and tells just what it ought to cost. 
Also shows where to buy supplies. Illustrated. Second 
edition. Cloth. Prtee, 92.00 

MINING 



Prospector's Field-Book and Guide. 

By H. S. Osborn. New 1920 edition, revised and enlarged 
by M. W. von Bernewitz. The last edition of this volume 
was published in 1910. It and the previous seven editions 
were suitable for those times. The new ninth edition will 
be found suitable for the present time. While the old-time 
prospector will always be an important factor, the knowledge 
of and search for the common and rarer minerals is bringing 
out men who are trained to some degree. In the field they 
need a handy and suggestive pocket-book containing hints on 
prospecting — where to search and how to test — couched in 
simple terms. 375 pages. 57 illustrations. New edition. 

Price, *3.00 

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MODEL MAKING 
Model Making. 

By Raymond Francis Yates. A new book for the mechanic 
add model maker. This is the first book of its kind to be 
published in this country, and ail those interested in model 
engineering should have a copy. The first eight chapters arc 
devoted to such subjects as Silver Soldering, Heat Treatment 
of Steel, Lathe Work, Pattern Making, Grinding, etc. The 
remaining twenty-four chapters describe the construction of 
various models such as rapid fire naval guns, speed boats, 
model steam engines, turbines, etc. 400 pages. 301 illus- 
trations. Price, 98.00 

MOTOR BOATS 

s= a 

Motor Boats and Boat Motors. 

By V. W. Pag* and A. C. Lbitch. All who are interested 
in motor boats will find this latest work a most comprehensive 
treatise on the design, construction, operation and repair of 
motor boats and their power plants. It is really two com- 
plete books in one cover, as it consists of two parts, each 
complete in itself. Part one deals with THE HULL AND 
ITS FITTINGS, part two considers THE POWER PLANT 
AND ITS AUXILIARIES. A valuable feature of this book 
is the complete set of dimensioned working drawings detailing 
the construction of five different types of boats ranging from 
a 16-foot shallow draft, tunnel stern general utility craft to 
a 25-foot cabin cruiser. It is a comprehensive work of ref- 
erence for all interested in motor boating in any of its 
phases. 372 illustrations. 524 pages. New Edition. 

Price, $4.00 

MOTORCYCLES 

Motorcycles and Side Cars: Their Construction, 
Management and Repair. 

By Victor W. Pag£. Describes fully all leading types of 
machines, their design, construction, maintenance, operation 
and repair. Shows all new improvements in motorcycle con- 
struction and gives the most complete instructions ever pub- 
lished for starting, driving and repairing all types of motor- 
cycles. There is a complete exposition of modern starting 
methods and a full explanation of the operating principles 
and repair of the new automatic electric lighting systems. 
The care of the generator, storage battery, automatic cut-out 
and other parts is clearly expounded. All types of change 
speed gears and clutches are fully outlined, also full instruc- 
tions for their use. A complete new chapter has been added 
on the thorough overhauling and repairing of motorcycle 
engines, all processes are fully described and illustrated. The 
reader is told what parts wear, how to detect depreciation 
and how to make all repairs and adjustments necessary to 
make the engine as good as new. 693 pages. 371 illustra- 
tions. New Revised and Enlarged Edition. Price, $3.00 

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PATTERN MAKING 
Practical Pattern Making. 

By F. W. Barrows. This book is a comprehensive and 
entirely practical treatise on the subject of pattern making, 
illustrating pattern work in both wood and metal, and with 
definite instructions on the use of plaster of paris in the 
trade. It gives specific and detailed descriptions of the 
materials used by pattern makers and describes the tools; 
both those for the bench and the more interesting machine 
tools; having complete chapters on the lathe, the circular saw 
and the band saw. It gives many examples of pattern work. 
Nearly 350 pages, 170 illustrations. Third, 1922, edition, 
revised and. enlarged. Price, $2.50 

PERFUMERY 



Perfumes and Cosmetics, Their Preparation and 
Manufacture. 

By G. W. Askinson. Perfumer. A comprehensive treatise, 
in which there has been nothing omitted that could be of 
value to the perfumer or manufacturer of toilet preparations. 
Complete directions for making handkerchief perfumes, 
smelling-salts, sachets, fumigating pastils; preparations for 
the care of the skin, the mouth, the hair, cosmetics, hair 
dyes and other toilet articles are given, also a detailed 
description of aromatic substances; their nature, tests of 
purity, and wholesale manufacture, including a chapter on 
synthetic products, with formulas for their use. A book of 
general as well as professional interest, meeting the wants 
not only of the druggist and perfume manufacturer, but also 
of the general public. Fourth edition, much enlarged and 
brought up-to-date. 354 pages, illustrated. Price, 96.00 

PLUMBING 



Plumbers, Steam Fitters, and Tinners Reference 
Book. 

By H. G. RiCHfcv. This book should be in the hands of all 
connected with the Plumbing or Steam Heating Trades. It 
is a most comprehensive work and written by a man who 
understands the subject thoroughly and who has gathered 
in its pages just such matter as can be turned to when 
help is needed. Contains 529 pages, fully illustrated, pocket- 
book form. Price, $3.00 

Standard Practical Plumbing. 

By R. M. Starbuck. This is a complete treatise and covers 
the subject of Modern Plumbing in all its branches. It 
treats exhaustively on the skilled work of the plumber and 
the theory underlying plumbing devices and operations. It 
commends itself to anyone working in the plumbing trade. 
A large amount of space is devoted to a practical treatment 
of hot water supply, circulation and range boiler work. 
Another valuable feature is the special chapter on drawing 
for plumbers. The book has 406 pages, including 347 illus- 
trations — 100 of which are full page plates which were made 
expressly for this book and show the most modern American 
practice in plumbing construction. 6J4 x 9 54 • 

Price, $3*0 

34 



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Mechanical Drawing for Plumbers. 

By R. M. Starbuck. A concise, comprehensive and practical 
treatise on the subject of mechanical drawing in its various 
modern applications to the work of all who are in any way 
connected with the plumbing trade. Nothing will so help 
the plumber in estimating and in explaining work to Cus- 
tomers and workmen as a knowledge of drawing, and to the 
workman it is of inestimable value if he is to rise above his* 
position to positions of greater responsibility. 150 illus- 
trations. Pricey 92.00 

Modern Plumbing Illustrated. 

By R. M. Starbuck. The author of this book, Mr. R. M. 
Starbuck, is one of the leading authorities on plumbing in 
the United States. The book represents the highest standard 
of plumbing work. A very comprehensive work, illustrating 
and describing the drainage and ventilation of dwellings, 
apartments and public buildings. The very latest and most 
approved methods in all branches of sanitary installation are 
given. The standard book for master plumbers, architects, 
builders, plumbing inspectors, boards of health, boards of 
plumbing examiners and for the property owner, as well 
as the workman and apprentice. It .contains fifty-seven en- 
tirely new and large full pages of illustrations with descrip- 
tive text, all of which have been made specially for this 
work. These plates show all kinds of modern plumbing work. 
Each plate is accompanied by several pages of text, giving 
notes and practical suggestions, sizes of pipe, proper measure- 
ments for setting up work, etc. Suggestions on estimating 
>lumbing construction are also included. 407 octavo pages, 
ully illustrated by 58 full-page plates of engravings. 

Price, $5.00 

RECIPE BOOK 



t 



Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Recipes, 
Formulas and Processes. 

Edited by Gardner D. Hiscox. The most valuable techno- 
chemical formulae book published, including over 10,000 se- 
lected scientific, chemical, technological and practical recipes 
and processes. This book of 800 pages is the most complete 
book of recipes ever published, giving thousands of recipes 
for the manufacture of valuable articles for every-day use. 
Hints, helps, practical ideas and secret processes are revealed 
within its pages. It covers every branch of the useful arts 
and tells thousands of ways of making money and is just the 
book everyone should have at his command. The pages are 
filled with matters of intense interest and immeasurable prac- 
tical value to the photographer, the perfumer, the painter 
the manufacturer of glues, pastes, cements and mucilages, 
the physician, the druggist, the electrician, the dentist, the 
engineer, the foundryman, the machinist, the potter, the 
tanner, the confectioner, the chiropodist, the manufacturer 
of chemical novelties and toilet preparations, the dyer, the 
clectroplater, the enameler, the engraver, the provisioner, the 
Class worker, the gold-beater, the watchmaker, the jeweler, 
the ink manufacturer, the optician, the farmer, the dairyman, 
the paper maker, the metal worker, the soap maker, the 
veterinary surgeon, and the technologist in general. A book 
to which you may turn with confidence that you will find 

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what you are looking for. A mine of information up-to-date 
m every respect. Contains an immense number of formulas 
that every one ought to have that are not found in any other 
work. New 1921 edition. 807 octavo pages. Cloth binding. 

Price, 94M 

RUBBER 

Rubber Hand Stamps and the Manipulation of 
India Rubber. 

By T. O'Conok Sloans. , This book gives full details of all 
points, treating in a concise and simple manner the elements 
of nearly everything it is necessary to understand for a 
commencement in any branch of the India rubber manu- 
facture. The making of all kinds of rubber hand stamps, 
small articles of India rubber, U. S. Government composi- 
tion, dating hand stamps, the manipulation of sheet rubLer, 
toy balloons, India rubber solutions, cements, blackings, 
renovating varnish, and treatment for India rubber shoes, 
etc.; the hektograph stamp inks, and miscellaneous notes, 
with a short account of the discovery, collection and manu- 
facture of India rubber are set forth in a manner designed 
to be readily understood, the explanation being plain and 
simple. Third edition.. 175 pages, illustrated. Price, ai.8v 

SAWS 
Saw Filing and Management of Saws. 

By Robert Grimshaw. A practical hand-book on filing, 
gumming, swaging, hammering and the brazing of band saws, 
the speed, work, and power to run circular saws, etc. A 
handy book for those who have charge of saws, or for those 
mechanics who do their own filing, as it deals with the proper 
shape and pitches of saw teeth of all kinds and gives many 
useful hints and rules for gumming, setting, and filing, and is 
a practical aid to those who use saws for any purpose. Fourth 
edition, revised and enlarged. Illustrated. Price, S1.50 

SCREW CUTTING 
Threads and Thread Cutting. 

By Colvin and Stable. This clears up many of the mysteries 
of thread cutting, such as double and triple threads, internal 
threads, catching threads, use of hobs { etc. Contains a lot of 
useful hints and several tables. Third edition. 

Price* 35 cents 

STEAM ENGINEERING 
American Stationary Engineering. 

By W. E. Crane. A new book by a well-known author. 
Begins at the boiler room and takes in the whole power plant. 
Contains the result of years of practical experience m all 
sorts of engine rooms and gives exact information that cannot 
be found elsewhere. It's plain enough for practical men and 
yet of value to those high in the profession. Has a complete 
examination for a license. Third edition revised and en- 
larged. 311 pages, 131 illustrations. Cloth. Price, 924(0 



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Steam Engine Troubles. 

By H. Ham kens. It is safe to say that no book has ever 
been published which gives the practical engineer such valua- 
ble and comprehensive information on steam engine design 
and troubles. There are descriptions of cylinders, valves, 
pistons, frames, pillow blocks and other bearings, connect- 
ing rods, wristplates, dashpots, reachrods, valve gears, gov- 
ernors, piping, throttle and emergency valves, safety stops, 
flywheels, oilers, etc If there is any trouble with these 
parts, the book gives you the reasons and tell how to remedy 
them. New Edition. 284 pages, 276 illustrations. 

Price, *2£d 

Modern Steam Engineering in Theory and Prac- 
tice. 

By Gardner D. Hiscox. This is a complete and practical 
work issued for stationary engineers and firemen dealing 
with the care and management of boilers, engines, pumps, 
superheated steam, refrigerating machinery, dynamos, motors, 
elevators, air compressors, and all other branches with which 
the modern engineer must be familiar. # Nearly 200 questions 
with their answers on steam and electrical engineering, likely 
to he asked by the examining board, are included. Fourth 
edition. 487 pages, 405 engravings. Cloth. Price, *34H> 

Steam Engineer's Arithmetic 

By Colvin-Cheney. A prac'ical pocket book for the steam 
engineer. Shows how to work the problems of the engine 
reom and shows "why." Tells how to figure horse-power 
of engines and boilers; area of boilers; has tables of areas 
and circumferences; steam tables; has a dictionary of engi- 
neering terms. Puts you onto all of the little kinks in 
figuring whatever there is to figure around a power plant. 
Tells you about the heat unit; absolute zero; adiabatic ex- 
pansion; duty of engines; factor of safety; and 1,001 other 
things; and everything is plain and simple — not the hardest 
way to figure, but the easiest. Second edition. 

Price, 75 cents 

Steam Engine Catechism. 

By Robert Grimshaw. This volume of 413 pages is not. 
only a catechism on the question and answer principle, but 
it contains formulas and worked-out answers for all the steam 
problems that appertain to the operation and management of 
the steam engine. Sixteenth edition. Price, 92.00 

Engine Runner's Catechism. 

By Robert Grimshaw. Tells how to erect, adjust and run 
the principal steam engines in use in the United States. The 
work is of a handy size for the pocket. To young engineers 
this catechism will be of great value, especially to those who 
may be preparing to go forward to be examined for certifi- 
cates of competency; and to engineers generally it will be 
of no little service, as they will find in this volume more 
really practical and useful information than is to be found 
anywhere else within a like compass. 387 pages. Seventh 
edition. Price, 82.00 

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STEAM HEATING and VENTILATING 

Practical Steam, Hot- Water Heating and Ven* 
tilation. 

By A. G. King. This book has been prepared for the use 
of all engaged in the business of steam, hot-water heating 
and ventilation. Tells how to get heating contracts, how to 
install heating and ventilating apparatus, the best business 
methods to be used, with "Tricks of the Trade" for shop 
use. Rules and data for estimating radiation and cost and 
such tables and information as make it an indispensable 
work for everyone interested in steam, hot-water heating and 
ventilation. It describes all the principal systems of steam, 
hot-water, vacuum, vapor and vacuum-vapor heating, together 
with the new accelerated systems of hot-water circulation, 
including chapters on up-to-date methods of ventilation and 
the fan or blower system of heating and ventilation. Third 
edition. 402 pages, 300 detailed engravings. Price* $&50 

500 Plain Answers to Direct Questions on Steam, 
Hot- Water, Vapor and Vaccum Heating Prac- 
tice. 

By Alfred G. King. This work is arranged in question and 
answer form; it is intended as a guide and text-book for the 
younger inexperienced fitter and as a reference book for all 
fitters. All long and tedious discussions and descriptions 
formerly considered so important have been eliminated, and 
the theory and laws of heat and the various old and modern 
methods and appliances used for heating and ventilating are 
treated in a concise manner. This is the standard Question 
and Answer examination book on Steam and Hot Water 
Heating, etc. 214 pages, 127 illustrations. Octavo. Cloth. 

Price, S2.00 

STEEL 



Hardening, Tempering, Annealing and Forging 
of Steel. 

By J. V. Woodworth. A book containing special directions 
for the successful hardening and tempering of all steel tools. 
Milling cutterSj taps, thread dies, reamers, both solid and 
shell, hollow mills, punches and dies, and all kinds of sheet- 
metal working tools, shear blades, saws, fine cutlery and 
metal-cutting tools of all descriptions, as well as for all 
implements of steel, both large and small, the simplest, and 
most satisfactory hardening and tempering processes are 
presented. 320 pages, 215 illustrations. Fifth revised edition. 
Cloth. Price, *S.OO 

Steel: Its Selection, Annealing, Hardening and 
Tempering. 

By E. R. Mark ham. This work was formerly known as 
"The American Steel Worker." This is the standard work 
on hardening, tempering, and annealing steel of all kinds. 
This book tells how to select, and how to work, temper, 
harden, and anneal steel for everything on earth. It is 
the standard book on selecting hardening, and tempering 
all grades of steel. 400 pages. Very fully illustrated. 
Fourth edition. Price, S3.00 

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TRACTORS 

Modern Gas Tractor: Its Construction, Utility, 
Operation and Repair. 

By Victor W. PxGi. An enlarged and revised edition that 
treats exclusively on the design and construction of farm 
tractors and tractor power plants, and gives complete instruc- 
tions on their care, operation and repair. All types and 
sizes of gasoline, kerosene and oil tractors are described, 
and every phase of traction engineering practice fully cov- 
ered. Invaluable to all desiring reliable information on gas 
motor propelled traction engines and their use. All new 
1922 types of tractors are described and complete instruc- 
tions are given for their use on the farm. Valuable infor- 
mation compiled by Government experts on laying out fields 
for tractor plowing and numerous practical suggestions for 
hitches so all types of agricultural machinery can De operated 
by tractors are outlined. Full instructions are 'also given? 
for using kerosene and distillate as fuel. 600 pages, 300 
illustrations, 3 folding plates. Price, #3.00 

WELDING 



Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting with a 
Treatise on Acetylene and Oxygen. 

By P. F. Willis. The 6th revised and much enlarged edi- 
tion of this book is just off the press. It is a very complete 
work, written in simple language, fully illustrated with en- 
gravings showing how to prepare the work, as well as the 
actual welding of it. Special chapters treating on Acetylene 
Oxygen Welding and Cutting, Torch Apparatus and Installa- 
tion, Preparing for Welding, Welding of Different Metals, 
Welding of Sheet Metal and Pipe, Welding of Boilers, 
Welding of Various Pieces, Electric Welding, Automobile 
and miscellaneous welding are contained, as well as other 
valuable data. 250 pages. Fully illustrated. Price* S1.50 

Modern Welding Methods. 

By Victor W. Pag6. It considers in detail oxy-acetylene 
welding, the Thermit process and all classes of electric arc 
and resistance welding. It shows all the apparatus needed 
and how to use it. It considers the production of welding 
gases, construction and operation of welding and cutting 
torches of all kinds. It details the latest approved methods 
of preparing work for welding. All forms of gas and electric 
welding machines are described and complete instructions 
are given for installing electric spot and butt welders. Cost 
data are given and all methods of doing the work economi- 
cally are described. It includes instructions for forge and 
dip brazing and manufacture of hard solders and spelters. 
It shows and explains soft soldering processes jind tells how 
to make solders for any use. Complete instructions are 
given for soldering aluminum and authoritative formulas for 
aluminum solders are included. 292 pages. 200 illustrations. 
New edition. Price, $3.00 

Automobile Welding with Oxy-Acetylene Flame. 

By M. Keith Dunham. (See page 5 for full description.) 

Price, fl.80 



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The Most Valuable Techno-Chemical Recipe 
Book Ever Offered to the Public! 



Henley's Twentieth Century Book of 

RECIPES, FORMULAS 
AND PROCESSES 

Price $4.00 

This book of 800 pages is the most complete Book of Recipes 
ever published, giving thousands of recipes for the manu- 
facture of valuable articles for every-day use. Hints, Helps, 
Practical Ideas and Secret 
Processes are revealed within 
its pages. It covers every 
branch of the useful arts and 
tells thousands of ways of mak- 
ing money and is just the book 
everyone should nave at his 
command. 

The pages are filled with 
matters of intense interest and 
immeasurable practical value to 
the Photographer, the Perfumer, 
the Painter, the Manufacturer 
of Glues, Pastes, Cements and 
Mucilages, the Physician, the 
Druggist, the Electrician, the 
Dentist, the Engineer, the 
Foundryman, the Machinist, the 
Potter, the Tanner, the Con- 
fectioner, the Chiropodist, the 
Manufacturer of Chemical Nov- 
elties and Toilet Preparations, 
the Dyer, the Electroplater, the 
Enameler, the Engraver, the Provisioner, the Glass Worker, 
the Goldbeater, the Watchmaker and Jeweler, the Ink Manu- 
facturer, the Optician, the Farmer, the Dairyman, the Paper 
Maker, the Metal Worker, the Soap Maker, the Veterinary 
Surgeon and the Technologist in general. 

A book to which you may turn with confidence that you 
will find what you are looking for. # A mine of information, 
up-to-date in every respect. Contains an immense number 
of formulas that everyone ought to have that are not found 
in any other work. 

1A AAA Practical Formulas and Processes 

1U,UUU The! Best Way to Make Everything 

ONE USEFUL RECIPE WILL BE WORTH MORE 

THAN TEN TIMES THE PRICE OF THE ROOK 

{See page 35 for further description of the book.) 

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The borrower must return this item on or before 
the last date stamped below. If another user 
places a recall for this item, the borrower will 
be notified of the need for an earlier return. 

Non-receipt of overdue notices does not exempt 
the borrower from overdue fines. 



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